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Reconstruction period - WW1


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10% Reconstruction Plan
Wade-Davis Bill
13th Amendment
Abolishment of Slavery
Black Codes
State laws passed to try and keep the Freemen as 2nd class citizens.
Civil Rights Bill
Vetoed by Johnson, Overridden by Congress
14th Amendment
The right to citizenship
Military Reconstruction Act
The south was divided into 5 districts. General U.S. Grant was to oversee the districts.
15th Amendment
Right for Black Freeman to vote
Ku Klux Klan. Who was the first member?
Started in Tenn. Hate group, didnÂ’t like the 15th Amendment. Started out as a Faternal Organization, then Charity group.NATHAN BEDFORD-1st Member
Force Acts of 1870-1871
Acts to curtail the violence of the KKK. Set curfew, no riding horses at night.
Impeachment Pres. Andrew Johnson
Weak president. Had the 50% Reconst. Plan. Impeached but not removed.(For Abuse of Power - Tenure of office Acts)
Tenure of office Acts
Senate must approve firing of a position by the president. Sentate passed to “set-up” Johnson so they could impeach him. Later Supreme Court found Unconst.
FreedmanÂ’s Bureau
Three parts:
Charitable organization
Land distribution,
Mostly known for there education.
AKA as Seward's Folly, purchased for 7.2 million from Russia.
Seward's Folly
Purchase of Alaska
U.S. Grant
Weak president, controlled by congress. Presidency marked by corruption.
Black Friday
Attempt to corner the Gold market.
Jim Fisk and Jay Gould set-up Pres. Grant to look like he was a part of it. Bought up Gold, raised price, didnÂ’t let Govt. release gold into the market. Later, Grant releases Gold all at onceÂ…people lost everything. Depression hits country.
Credit Mobiler Scandal
Largest Scandal. About the Trans-Cont. Railroads. Company owned by OAK AMES- member of the house. Oak bribed everyone in congress – many people implicated. Monopoly on business. Govt. paid the business to build RR.
Whiskey Ring
Liquor Tax, Sec of Treasury pockets money.
Belknap Bribery
Sec. of War responsible for maintaining Indian Reservations. Company bribed to get contract – money funneled into wife’s acct.
Tammany Hall and Boss Tweed
Dem. Political machine - William Tweed. Most corrupt machine. “Taken down” by Thomas Nast -cartoonist.
Samuel Tilden had Tweed arrested for corruption.
Hayes-Tilden Election 1876
Worst Corruption election in U.S. history.No clear winner. House committee decide Hayes wins.
Compromise of 1877
Ended the Reconstruction period.
James Garfield
2nd shortest presidential tenure.
Assassinated by Charles Guiteau.
Chester Arthur becomes president.
Chester Arthur
Becomes president after James Garfield was assassinated. Pendleton Act passed.
Pendleton Act of 1883
As a result of Garfield’s assassination, got rid of the “spoils system.” – Civil Service Reform.
Grover Cleveland
Only person to have two NON-consecutive terms.
Benjamin Harris
Only Grandfather and Grandson that served as presidents.
Robber Barons (and examples)
Monopolistic head of an Industry
Carnegie - Steel/Vertical Integration
Morgan –Banks
Interstate Commerce Commision (ICC)
First regulatory commission for RR. Mainly passed to “pacify” the farmers. Not effective because of the corruption.
The Railroads (Two Companies)
Union Pacific – NE to West (1086 miles)
Central Pacific – CA to Omaha (689 miles)
“Wedding of the Rails”
Promitory Point
Most of the Labor for the RRÂ’s came from what three groups?
Freedman -Union
Chinese -Central
Irish – Union
Positive Impact of Railroads
Time Zones, Trade, Travel, Industries
Negative Impact of Railroads
Shipping industry goes down, Indians, Ghost towns, High crime, Death
What is a Trust ?
Owning of more than one company. Group of investors buy up stock. Ex: own all oil refineries.
Sherman Anti-Trust Act
Passes to appease the workers, outlawed trusts.
John D. Rockefeller
Oil Baron, Created the “Trusts”
Andrew Carnegie
Steel Baron, Created “Vertical Integration”
Ex: buys up the entire industry.
J.P. Morgan
Labor Unions (Three)
Tried to establish working regulations.
National Labor Union
Knights of Labor
Haymarket Square Massacre
Knights of Labor blamed for killing police in a national strike.
National Labor Union (Who could join? Problem?)
Everyone could join.
Problem, more interested in Social Reform
Knights of Labor (Who could join? Problem?)
Everyone could join.
Problem, more interested in Social Reform
AFL (Founder? Who cold join?)
Samuel Gompers.
Only skilled labor – white males.
Samuel Gompers
Founded AFL union.
Thomas Edison
Discovered Electricity, More Patents that anyone else.
Alexander Graham Bell
Invented the Telephone
John Wilkes Booth
Assassinated Abraham Lincoln
Two main groups migrating to the City.
Immigrants (Outside), Country/Rual (inside).
Most Immigrants are coming from what areas?
Southern Europe (Italians), Eastern Europe(Jews)
Reasons for migration to the city?
RR is robbing land from farmers, Country is becoming industrialized.
List some problems within the city.
Overcrowding, increase in crime, lack of jobs, homelessness, disease
Groups that rise up for reform
Churches, Tammany Hall, Jane Adams/Hull house, Civil Rights groups, Press
Social Gospel
Dwight L. Moody
Jane Adams
Hull House, settlement houses, basic education. Starting of WomenÂ’s Rights.
Mary Baker Eddy
Founded Christian Science.
Reform group that helped boys/girls
Booker T. Washington
Founded Tuskegee Inst.(Slave); believed the “fight” was life long.
W.E.B Dubois
1st Black Harvard PHD. –Sociology, founded NAACP.
The Press AKA...
Changes to Sensationalism to get the attention of the reader: “Yellow Journalism”
Joseph Pulitzer and William Hearst
“Robber Barons” of newspaper industry.
Authors of the Reform movement period
Mark Twain, Stephen Crane, Jack London, Emily Dickenson, William Halze
Emily Dickenson
AmericaÂ’s Favorite Poet
Inventor of Basketball (YMCA)
James Nay Smith
Annie Oakley
Woman Sharp-shooter: “Greatest on the face of the earth”
“The Great Train Robbery”
1st full length film.
Indian Wars: Bozeman Trail
Wagon Trail, Ambush type warfare - Indians led victory 1866
FettermanÂ’s Defeat
Only time the Indians could dictate the peace treaty. Treaty of Laramy – made Army abandon Bozeman trail
Battle of Little Big Horn
Most famous of Indian Wars battle. CusterÂ’s Last Stand. Sent to protect the Gold miners.
Apache Chief, Surrendered at Skeleton Canyon. (Starts on Wild West Shows)
Chief Joseph
Head of “Nez Perce” tribe
Wounded Knee
Indian Massacre. Indians gave up their guns –by mistake army started shooting. End of Indian Wars.
Helen Hunt Jackson
Stood up for Indians. Wrote Book “A Century of Dishonor”
The Grange
Co-ops for Farmers/ Helped find politicians that favored farmers and lobby for change.
Populist Party
A Party the Farmers created to have more “say” in political matters. (Peoples Party)
Billion Dollar Congress
Wanted to make everyone happy. Gave bonus to civil war vets.
Sherman-Silver Act
Farmers agreed silver would be their currency. Govt. approved and bought up all the silver. Robber Barons get Gold. Farmers get Silver.
Mckinley Tariff
Eliminated Europe competition. Industry “protectionism”.
Panic of 1893
Causes depression. A series of shocks that undermined public confidence and weakened the economy. Under President Grover Cleveland.
CoxeyÂ’s Army
Jacob Coxey marched on Washington to Protest.
Pullman Strike
RR Strikers? –Army had to be called in because they disrupted the US Mail.
Eugene V. Debs
In Charge of Pullman Strike.
Who nominated William Jennings Bryan and what speech is he famous for?
Nominated by Populist Party, Nominated by Democratic Party –Gave speech “Cross of Gold”
How did William Mckinley change the face of campaigning?
Wins 1896 Election against William Jennings Bryan, Changed the face of campaigning – hired a campaign manager, Mark Hannah (He solicited money).
Josiah Strong
Missionary to Asia(China), outspoken supported for Asia
Alfred Thayer Mahan
Capt in U.S. Navy wrote “Possibilties of World Domination Influence of Sea…..”
USS Maine
Ship sent to Cuba as a show of force. Mysteriously exploded.
Teller Amendment
Amendment to the Declarations of war.
Commodore George Dewey
Commander of the Navy Fleet in Philippines. Battle of Manila Bay. 1st Shots of war over Cuba.
Leonard Wood
In Charge of the Rough Riders (Later becomes governor of Cuba)
Theodore Roosevelt (Rough Riders)
In charge of East
Buck OÂ’neil
In Charge of West Rough Riders
Treaty of Paris 1898
Ends the Spanish –American War
Platt Amendment
US can intervene in Cuba and gets G.Bay
Joseph Wheeler
Comes out of retirement to help train Rough Riders in Florida.
Election 1900
William McKinley wins, Theodore Roosevelt is VP.
Leon F. Czolgosz
Assassinates William McKinley.
Roosevelt Corollary
Theodore RooseveltÂ’s policy on Foreign Affairs to the Monroe Doctrine.
New Type of “Investigative” Journalism
Ida Tarbell
Most Famous Muckraker, Wrote for “Mclures” – Standard Oil. They Expose ugliness.
Lincoln Steffens
Author of “Shame of the Cities”
Jacob Riis
Author “How the other half lives”
Stephan Crane
Author “Maggie” – A girl of the streets.
Upton Sinclair
Author “The Jungle” – Worker Life, impact meat business.
17th Amendment
Direct Election of Senators
Triangle Shirtwaist Co
Disaster killed 146 women in a sewing factory. This brought about reform.
Square Deal
Theodore RooseveltÂ’s Platform. The Three CÂ’s: Control Corporations, Consumer Protection, and Conservatism.
Anthracite Coal Strike
Strike affecting schools, Roosevelt stepped in and took control of mines.
Three biggest changes from Political Reform.
1.Creation of Recall vote 2. Direct Primary Election 3. Created 17th Amdendment.
Theodore Roosevelt (Re-elected after Mclinley) Platform
The Square Deal
Elkins Act and Hepburn Act
Examples of Corporation Control – Three C’s of Roosevelt
Meat Inspection Act and Pure Food Drug
Examples of Consumer Control – Three C’s of Roosevelt
Forest Reserve Act and Newlands Act
Examples of Conservation – Three C’s of Roosevelt
As a result of the nomations for “Election of 1912”, What does Roosevelt do?
Create the Bull-Moose party
Who wins the election of 1912?
Woodrow Wilson (Taft – Roosevelt split votes)
“New Freedom” Platform
Woodrow WilsonÂ’s Platform
Three principles of the “Triple wall of Privilege”
Three Principles of the “New Freedom” Platform: Taxes/Tariffs, Trusts, Banks
16th Amendment
Federal Tax Income
Underwood Tariff
Lowered tariffs on hundreds of items that could be produced more cheaply in the United States than abroad.
Federal Reserve Act
Created the Federal Reserve Banks
Federal Trade Commission
Regulates business, Kills Monopolies
Clayton-Trust Act
Labor Reform, outlawed Anti-trust laws.
Poncho Villa
Biggest Rebel in Mexico History. Trying to take over Mexican government – Kills Americans- trying to get U.S. to go to war with Mexico.
John J. Pershing
Rough Riders, In charge of searching out Poncho Villa
Franz Ferdinand
Arch Duke from Austria-Hungry, Assassinated – The beginnings of WWI.
List the 4 Allied Powers of WWI
France, Russia, Britain, (Later USA)
List the 3 Central Powers of WWI
Germany, Austri-Hungry, Ottuman Empire(Turkey).
What country mobilized and attacked first in WWI?
Germany mobilized troops first and attacked first – by surprise.
List reason why the war between Germany and France became stagnant.
Machine guns, Artillery, Barbed wire, Mustard Gas, U-Boats
German owned Submarines, did not discriminate against neutral or merchant ships.
The Lusitonia
A British passenger ship that was sunk by a U-Boat. 128 Americans died.
Factors that bring U.S. into the War (WWI)
U-boats, sinking of The Lusitonia, Sinking American ships, Catching German Spies in U.S., THE ZIMMERMAN TELEGRAM.
The Zimmerman telegram
German foreign minister sends telegram to Mexico asking them to invade the US. Telegraph was intercepted and confirmed by Mexico.
What four “higher reasons” does Wilson use in making entry to the war a “ideological Crusade” ?
1.World safe for democracy, 2. Take out Tyrants/Dictatorships 3. War to end all Wars. 4. Created "14 points"
Wilson Fourteen Points
Woodrow Wilson’s “ideological Crusade”
Creation of “League of Nations”
Woodrow Wilson, never became a part of it, came out of his 14 pointsÂ…
AEF – American Expeditionary Force (The Army)
John J. Pershing Headed up (Army)
George Creel
Head of Committee on Public Information
Committee on Public Information
Raised morale of the country
Food Administration
Headed by Herbert Hoover
19th Amendment
Last progressive Amendments – Women’s right to vote.
Treaty of Versailles
End of WWI
Article 231
AKA “War guilt cause”

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