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History - Women Fight For Equality

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Under the Equal Employment Opportunity Act of 1972, what/who were required to increase the proportions of their female and minority employees until they matched the proportions existing in the available market?
State govts., institutions, universities, local govts.
Why was it defeated in the 1970s?
Because of a growing conservative reaction to radical feminists.
Was Phyllis Schlafly a liberal or a conservative?
Conservative.
What did the ERA State?
That men & women must be treated equally by law
Provide the title of Friedan's book (1963).
The Feminine Mystique
In what year did the Congress actually pass the ERA?
1972
Proved the title of Betty Friedan's book (1963)
The Feminine Mystique
Define/explain affirmative action.
A formal effort to proved increased employment opportunities for women & ethnic minorities, to overcome past patterns of discrimination
Did the ERA ever actually become a law in the United States (yes or no)?
No.
Who/what is then needed to ratify (approve) the ERA? How many states are need to ratify the ERA for it to become law?
Legislatures of three-fourths of the states, 38 states.
This book was one of the first to make what claim?
That women should have equality w/ men
Who became a leading spokesperson and supporter of the traditional role of women as mothers and homemakers?
Phyllis Schlafly
Concerning NOW, it supports what TWO things?
Legalized abortion & access to birth control.
Title IX is landmark legislatin that bans sex discrimination in schools involveing which TWO areas?
Academics & Athletics
What magazine did she cofound in 1972?
Ms.
Many people protested what TWO things in society concerning gender-based distinctions?
A women's physical appearance was often considered a job qualification, girls exclusion from sports such as baseball & football
Which U.S. Supreme Court case in 1973 ruled that women do have the right to choose an abortion during the first three months of pregnancy?
Roe vs. Wade
Has the ERA ever became an official amendment to the U.S. Constitution
No
What book (1792) was written by Mary Wollstonecraft?
A Vindication of the Rights of Woman
Wollstonecraft argued that women could live happy, creative lives if what occurred?
They had better educational opportunities
What does Title IX state (provide entire statement)?
"No person in the U.S. shall, on the basis of sex be excluded from participation in, or denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any educational program or activity receiving federal aid."
Many opponents of NOW dislike the organization for what three reasons?
It supports abortion, the opponents think you should preserve the traditional roles of men & women in society, the opponents dislike their use of rallies, marches, & demonstration to achieve goals
Who was one of NOW's cofounders in 1966?
Betty Friedan
Who is considered the founder of the women's liberation movement?
Betty Friedan
Proved what (total) the ERA stated.
"Equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on the account of sex."
Does NOW support or oppose the Roe v. Wade decision?
Support.
Which political philosophy (liberal or conservative) dominated the political and social scene in the
1960s: Conservative, 1970s: Liberal
Concerning the ERA, it was first introduced in Congress in what year?
1923
What did some women refuse to adopt upon marriage?
Husbands' last names
Is Phyllis Schlafly considered a liberal or a conservative?
Conservative
According to the U.S. Constituion, to become law, a constitutional amendment must be ratified (approved) by the legislatures of how many states? A minimum of how many of the 50 states are needed to ratify the ERA for it to become a law?
three-fourths, 38
Gloria Steinem achieved fame as what (list both)?
Writer, leading supporter of the women's liberation movement in the U.S.
Provide the full name of the ERA.
Equal Rights Amendment
The Eagle Forum supports what TWo ideas/beliefs?
The preservation of traditional morality, the preservation of the traditional American family
What anti-ERA organization did Schlafly establish and lead in 1972?
Stop ERA
Did Schlafly support or oppose the ERA?
Oppose
Ms. Magazine featured articles that told women about what (both)?
Career opportunities, meaningful ways of life
How does the amendment read (provide the full statement)?
"Equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the U.S. or any state on account of sex."
According to Phyllis Schlafly, the ERA would lead to "a parade of horribles" such as (list all four)
Drafting of women, the end of laws protecting homemakers, the end of a husband's responsibility to provide for his family, same-sex marriages
To this date, has the ERA been added to the U.S. Constitution?
No.
Did the U.S. Congess in 1972 pass or defeat the ERA?
Pass
Explain how/why The Feminine Mystique gave the movement new direction.
By encouraging middle-class women to seek fulfillment in professional careers
Provide the aim/purpose of Title IX.
To promote equal treatment in schools for female staff & students
Which part of Title IX has caused/created the most controversy?
Athletics
Congress voted to extend the deadline for ratification from 1979 until when (year) to obtain the necessary 38 states?
1982
Does NOW support or oppose the Roe v. Wade decision?
Support.
Explain NOW.
One of the largest associations in the U.S., devoted to achieving full equality between women & men.
The "new" women's rights movement began in which decade?
1960s
Some women began using what title in place of the standard Miss or Mrs.?
Ms.
Whose voices (liberals or conservatives) began to express people's anger?
Conservatives
By the 1982 deadline, only ____ of the necessary 38 states had ratified the ERA?
35
Proved the full name of the ERA.
Equal Rights Amendment
In 1972, feminists achieved their greatest legislative victory when COngress passed what amendment?
Equal Rights Amendment
Provide the main consequence of Title IX on schools and colleges?
Schools & colleges greatly increased sports programs for females.
Who served as the FIRST president of NOW?
Betty Friedan
What did Friedan protest in her book?
Society puts a pressure on women to be homemakers and not seek a career outside the home.
Did the U.S. become more liberal or conservative in the 1970s?
Conservative.
List the FOUR main persons/groups that were opposed to the ERA.
Phyllis Schlafly, conservative religious groups, political organizations, many anti-feminists
Provide the full name for the following
NOW: Nation Organization for Women, ERA: Equal Rights Amendment
Define "feminism"
The belief that women should have economic, political, and social equality with men
List the THREE main factors that contributed to a renewal of the women's movement in the 1960s.
Increased education and employment of women in the 1950s, The Civil Rights Movement, & Sexual revolution
Explain the "problem that has no name."
Women were expected to be housewives instead of pursue careers they wished to have
What organization did Schlafly found in 1975?
Eagle Forum
Provide the name of the writer of the following.
A Vindication of the Rights of Women (1792): Mary Wallstonecraft; The Feminine Mystique (1963): Betty Friedan; Ms. Magazine (1972): Gloria Steinam
Did the New Right support (yes or no)
the ERA? no; abortion? no; the Roe v. Wade decision? no
Which book is said to have launched the modern women's liberation movement?
The Feminine Mystique
Did conservatives or liberals usually oppose the ERA?
Conservatives.
In 1966, Friedan helped found which women's rights organization?
National Organization for Women
What women's rights organization did Friedan help organize in 1966?
National Organization for Women
What campaign was launched in 1972 in opposition to the Equal Rights Amendment?
Stop-ERA
What did many people believe in the late 1960s?
The country was losing its sense of right and wrong
Does NOW support and call for the passage of the ERA?
Yes.
For what does NOW fight?
Equal rights for women
How did Friedan define the "feminine mystique"?
A lie that for generations kept women from realizing themselves as full persons with interests & longings beyond the bedroom, kitchen, nursery, etc.
What di the Stop ERA work to defeat?
the ERA
Was the New Right liberal or conservative?
Conservative
Was the New Right associated with the "pro-family" movement (yes or no)?
Yes.

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