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Exam Review PNHS history

Phillips Honors Modern American History Vocab and terms


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Trench warfare
fighting in ditches dug in the ground. It was how each side in WW1 fought
Christopher Sholes
invented the typewriter
The Great Upheaval
A year of many strikes over labor issues
Laissez faire economics
Non interference with the affairs of others
Alexander Graham Bell
Invented the telephone
the ban of alcohol. In the 1920's however, smuggling was made into a job. Speakeasies arose. (underground clubs)
Henry Ford
created the 8 hour work day, and raised wages to 5$/day. Made his cars affordable for almost every family at the time
An exact translation of the Bible was taken and acted upon. Led religious revivals. Billy Sunday and Aimee Semple McPherson were some popular names at the time
Babe Ruth
Famous baseball player for the Yankees
Treaty of Versailles
Terms: Germany's colonies and Turkey were divided among the Allied Nations, The mandate system which required new colonial leaders to report their administration to the League of Nations, Created new nations of Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia, France reclaimed Alsace-Corraine and Germany lost its colonies
A devotion to the interests and culture of one's nation
Shanty towns
Also known as Hoovervilles. Those with no home or work would create small town like areas of trash, boxes, boards, etc. Many were later burned out by the police force.
Bear Market
When the stock market is falling or expected to fall
Spark of WW1
When the Serbians assassinated the Archduke Franz Ferdinand heir the the Austria-Hungary throne
Made of steel. Made local transit reliable and westward expansion possible for business and people. Before the civil war there was only about 30,000 miles of laid track, by 1890 the figure was nearly 6 times that.
Why didn't the US participate in the League of Nations
They agreed with everything except for article 10. Article 10 states that if any member went to war, the others would fight for it also. Wilson thought that it defeated to point of the League of Nations
4 main causes of the Great Depression
Tariffs and war debt policies, over production of goods, global economic downturn, the availability of easy credit.
George Pullman
Invented the sleeping car
Zimmermann Note
a secret document to Mexico that said Germany would help them regain lost territories in Texas, Arizona, and New Mexico if they joined the war on the Central Powers side
Low wages and unsafe working conditions cause workers to revolt and group together. (Ex. American Railway Union, Child Labor Movement, Women Labor Movement, Industrial Workers of the World, Social Gospel Movement)
Mass transit
moved larger amounts of people at a time. Created more job opportunities for suburbs. Used street cars, etc.
Great Migration
200,000 to 550,000 African American's moved northward from 1915-1930. Enjoyed the better standard of living, still there was racial tension and violence.
Sherman Anti-trust act
MAde it illegal to form a trust that interfered with free trade between states or other countries
Challenges to Neutrality
British blockade, Germany establishing a war zone around Great Britain, the sinking of the Lusitania, U-boat warfare
Bull Market
When the stock market is rising or expected to rise
The stylish women of the 1920's. Shorter cut skirts and hair. Black hair. Took a bigger role is society; the workplace, politics, etc.
Andrew Carnegie
Carnegie Steel. MONOPOLY. Partnered with Rockefeller. Was a steel tycoon. Used Vertical and Horizontal integration. Also, a great philanthropist.
Allied Powers
Great Britain, France, Italy, Russia, and later the US
The Bessemer Steel Process was the new method to produce more than 90% of the nations steel. First Monopoly is steel was made by Andrew Carnegie
Thomas Edison
Perfected the incandescent light bulb
Henry Bessemer
Bessemer Process (steel)
Rugged Individualism
The belief that all individuals, or nearly all individuals, can succeed on their own and that government help for people should be minimal. Popularly said by Hertbert Hoover.
The Dust Bowl destroyed most Western farms. Much of the land was taken over for machine manufactured farming. Many farmers and families moved farther west to California during the 1930's.
Russian Revolution
Two revolutions of 1917 took Russia out of WW1
League of Nations
Headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland. Consisted of a permanent administrative staff,an assembly, and a council. The council was intended to have five members; France, Great Britain, Italy, Japan, and the US. Member nations were to try to resolve disputes peacefully. If negotiations failed, they were to observe a waiting period before they went to war. It was established in 1920 without the US.
Liberty Bonds
A special type of war bond to help support the Allied forces
Stock Market Crash
Another leading component to the start of the Great Depression. The stock became very popular in the 1920's, then in 1929 in took a steep downturn and many lost their money and hope they had put in to the stock.
Many men had to stand in breadlines, similar to soup kitchens, in order to provide food to their family.
Herbert Hoover
President during the Great Depression. Not well liked. Ignored the depression of the country and the lack of jobs and homes.
Ku Klux Klan
Grew to 4.5 million in the early 1920's. a group against African Americans. Burned crosses, killed influential blacks, and whites supporting the blacks.
Central Powers
Germany, Austria-Hungary, Turkey, and Bulgaria
New building techniques (city's grew up and out)
Assembly Line
A new way of working. Unskilled workers could be hired and paid for less.

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