This site is 100% ad supported. Please add an exception to adblock for this site.

Appleby 9 - 12


undefined, object
copy deck
Washington Disarmament Conference; 1921-1922
The U.S. and nine other countries discussed limits on naval armaments. They felt that a naval arms race had contributed to the start of WW I. They created quotas for different classes of ships that could be built by each country based on its economic power and size of existing navies.
The Jazz Singer
1927 - The first movie with sound; this "talkie" was about the life of famous jazz singer; Al Jolson.
John Maynard Keynes
1) British economist who developed Keynesian economics 2) government should spend heavily in a recession to jump start economy 3) following in the US 4) argued against Roosevelt cutting back in 1937
Henry Ford; the Model T; Alfred P. Sloan
1913 - Ford developed the mass-produced Model-T car; which sold at an affordable price. It pioneered the use of the assembly line. Also greatly increased his workers wages and instituted many modern concepts of regular work hours and job benefits. Sloan; an American industrialist; helped found project.
deficit spending
the abandonment of a balanced budget and borrowing of money to spend more than earned
Bureau of the Budget
Created in 1921; its primary task is to prepare the Annual Budget for presentation every January. It also controls the administration of the budget; improving it and encouraging government efficiency.
a group of ships, cars, troops, etc. traveling together as an escort for protection
Alvin York
American soldier 2 ) Battle of the Argonne Forest 3) single handily shot 24 Germans and captured 132 more after they surrendered 4) National hero
Brief depression; 1920-1921
Two years after WW I; prices went up and consumers stopped buying. Unemployment rose from 2% to 12% and industry and export trade halted.
Ernest Hemingway
Writer 2) Sun Also Rises; A Farewell to Arms 3) Lost generation author and ex patriot
African American Voting Shift
1) Turned to the Democratic party in 1936 2) blacks owed their welfare to the New Deal policies that had been enacted 3) African Americans had modest administration positions (Black Cabinet);
Margaret Sanger
1921 - founded American Birth Control League; which became Planned Parenthood in the 1940s. Advocated birth control awareness.
Palmer Raids
series of controversial raids by the U.S. Justice and Immigration Departments from 1919 to 1921 on suspected radical leftists in the United States 2) raids are named for Attorney General under Woodrow Wilson.
Mr Smith Goes to Washington
Movie 2) a young senator exposes corruption in Washington
William Faulkner
writer 2) stream of consciousness 3)
James Weldon Johnson (1871-1938)
American poet and part of the Harlem Renaissance; he was influenced by jazz music.
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation
provided government insurance to bank deposits, guaranteeing a return in confidence of the bank system
Election of 1928
Alfred E. Smith (D) vs. Herbert Hoover 2) Smith was a Catholic 3) Republicans took credit for prosperity of 1920s => Republican victory in all but the south
Hawley-Smoot Tariff
protective act that raised the prices on imports to an historic high 2) other countries did the same thing 3) exports declined with imports 4) cause of the Depression
Scopes trial; Clarence Darrow; William Jennings Bryan
1925 - Prosecution of Dayton; Tennessee school teacher; John Scopes; for violation of the Butler Act; a Tennessee law forbidding public schools from teaching about evolution. Former Democratic presidential candidate; William Jennings Bryan; prosecuted the case; and the famous criminal attorney; Clarence Darrow; defended Scopes. Scopes was convicted and fined $100; but the trial started a shift of public opinion away from Fundamentalism.
Social Security Act
1) provided security for older and unemployed workers 2) primarily an insurance measure 3) modest welfare to needy people and poor mothers with dependent children 4) monthly retirement benefit 5) unemployment insurance 6) left out many of the neediest Americans
Soap Operas
radio entertainment targeted toward stay-at home moms 2) Guiding Light was the most important
Battle of the Argonne Forest
Last major offensive of World War I under General Pershing 2) 1/10 of all U.S. troops died over 42 days 3) rough terrain, heavy machine gun fire, inadequate training.
Calvin Coolidge
President 1923-29 2) made career as governor of Mass 3) took a hard line against striking Boston Police 4) friend of big business 5) "keep cool with Coolidge"
National Industrial Recovery Act
1) suspended antitrust laws and allowed business 2) labor and government to cooperate in setting up voluntary rules for each industry => codes of fair competition => National Recovery Administration (NRA); "we do our part." => short-lived gains; difficult to administer => fall in industrial growth
New Deal Legacy
1) Limited success in ending Depression 2) unemployment remained high 3) balanced competing economic interests 4) federal authority over the economy was increased through key legislation 5) broker state established 5) safety net established 6) possibly made government too powerful 7) continuing debate....
Billy Sunday (1863-1935)
Baseball player and preacher; his baseball background helped him become the most popular evangelist minister of the time. Part of the Fundamentalist revival of the 1920's.
Red Scare
Period after WW1 when Americans feared communists were plotting to take over the U. S. government.
Group of Senators that was pro Treaty of Versailles if Article X was taken out
Schechter Poultry Company v. US
1) Supreme Court struck down National Recovery Administration after violation of poultry code 2) legistlation could not push powers to the executive branch, which had been happening through the New Deal; 3) fear that Court might strike down entire New Deal
Twenty-One Demands
Name for Japan's demands to the U.S.; including its threat to close China to European and American trade. Resolved by the 1917 Lansing-Ishii Agreement; a treaty which tried to settle differences between the U.S. and Japan.
Securities Exchange Commission
organization to regulate stock exchange and prevent fraud
Norman Thomas
Socialist Party Candidate in 1936; wanted increased socialism in US
Treaty of Versailles
Treaty imposed on Germany by the Allied powers in 1920 after the end of World War I which demanded exorbitant reparations from the Germans
Emergency Relief and Construction Act
called for 1.5 billion for public works and 300 mil in emergency loans to states for direct relief 2) first time in history the federal government supplied direct money to people 3) not enough to stem the accelerating collapse
Robert M. LaFollette (1855-1925)
A great debater and political leader who believed in libertarian reforms; he was a major leader of the Progressive movement from Wisconsin.
Charles Forbes
Harding administration 2) served time for fraud and bribery in connection with government contracts 3) took millions of dollars from the Veteran's Bureau.
Archduke Franz Ferdinand
Heir to the throne of Austria-Hungry 2) assassinated by a member of the Black Hand => World War I
John Steinbeck
writer 2) poverty and misfortune were key themes 3) Grapes of Wrath 4) Of Mice and Men
Election of 1920
Warren G. Harding (R) vs James Cox (D) 2) issues were WW I; the post-war economy and the League of Nations 3) Harding preached "Normalcy"
Election of 1936
1) Roosevelt (D) vs. Alfred E. Landon 2) Roosevelt won by a landslide, carrying every state except Maine and Vermont
Marcus Garvey (1887-1940); Universal Negro Improvement Association
Black leader who advocated "black nationalism;" and financial independence for Blacks; he started the "Back to Africa" movement. He believed Blacks would not get justice in mostly white nations.
Election of 1928: candidates; personalities; backgrounds
Herbert Hoover; the Republican; was a Quaker from Iowa; orphaned at 10; who worked his way through Stanford University. He expounded nationalism and old values of success through individual hard work. Alfred E. Smith; the Democrat; was a Catholic from New York; of immigration stock and advocated social reform programs.
Civilian Conservation Corps
offered unemployment to young men 18 to 25 => shelter belt => veterans in the CCC following second bonus march in 1935
Sacco and Vanzetti case
Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti were Italian immigrants charged with murdering a guard and robbing a shoe factory in Braintree; Mass. The trial lasted from 1920-1927. Convicted on circumstantial evidence; many believed they had been framed for the crime because of their anarchist and pro-union activities.
Civil Works Administration
hired workers to build or improve airports, 500k miles of road, 40k school buildings and 3500 playgrounds and parks. Cost was huge--1 billion in 5 months => helped people get through the winter
Henry Morgenthau
1) Treasury Secretary 2) wanted to balance budget 3) rejected by Keynesian economists
binding arbitration
dissatisfied union members could take their complaints to a neutral party who would listen to both sides on the issue
Boston Police Strike
Boston, MA 2) workers went on a strike 3) fearing communism, Coolidge (then governor) fired them and called in the militia to be the police force
Five Powers Treaty; Four Powers Treaty; Nine Powers Treaty
Five Powers Treaty: Signed as part of the Washington Naval Conference; U.S.; Great Britain; Japan; France; and Italy set a ten year suspension of construction of large ships and set quotas for the number of ships each country could build. Four Powers Treaty: U.S.; Japan; Britain; and France agreed to respect each others possessions in the Pacific. Nine Powers Treaty: Reaffirmed the Open Door Policy in China.
buying stock on credit (with 1,000 and investor could buy 10,000 worth of stock with the remaining as a loan
Court officers responsible for ejecting non paying tenants from their homes
Home Owner's Loan Corporation
1) homeowners pay mortgage payments 2) bought mortgages and restructured them so they were affordable 3) government acted like a normal bank
Espionage Act
passed after the United States entered WWI 2) imposed twenty year sentences on anyone found guilty of aiding the enemy, obstructing recruitment of soldiers, or encouraging disloyalty 3) allowed postmaster general to remove any materials that incited treason or insurrection from the mail
Wagner Act
guaranteed workers the right to organize unions and to bargain collectively => National Labor Relations Board
Henry L. Mencken
writer and editor 2) He attacked the shallowness and conceit of the American middle class. 3) reported from Scopes Trial
Recession of 1937
1) Unemployment suddenly surged after industrial output had stabilized some 2) Roosevelt stopped spending for fear people were too dependent 3) Roosevelt would eventually ask for money for PWA and WPA in '38
F. Scott Fitzgerald
Writer 2) Great Gatsby 3) critiqued money and wealth
New Deal
1) Roosevelt's policies for ending the Depression 2) intensely popular => election in 1932
Secretary of the Treasury Andrew Mellon
1) American financier 2) appointed Secretary of the Treasury in 1921 and served under Coolidge and Hoover 3) government reduced the WW I debt by $9 billion and Congress cut income tax rates substantially
McNary-Haugen Bill
The bill was a plan to raise the prices of farm products. 2) government could buy and sell the commodities at world price and tariff. Surplus sold abroad. It was vetoed twice by Coolidge. It was the forerunner of the 1930's agricultural programs.
safety net
safeguards and relief programs
National Labor Relations Board
organized factory elections and secret ballots to determine whether workers wanted a union => binding arbitration
Bank Holidays
Created to stop bank runs and prevent further banks from going out of business
Big Four
America, France, Italy, Brittan 2) nations who met at the end of World War I to negotiate peace
broker state
government works out conflicts among different interest groups
bear market
a long period of declining stock prices
Public Works Administration
began work building public highways, dams, sewer systems, schools and other government facilities => breakdown of racial barriers as AAs were employed some
5-3-1 ration
Tonnage ratio of the construction of large ships; it meant that Britain could only have 1 ship for every 3 ships in Japan; and Japan could only have 3 ships for every 5 ships in the U.S. Britain; U.S. and Japan agreed to dismantle some existing vessels to meet the ratio.
War Industries Board
Government agency that oversaw the production of all American factories 2) determined priorities, allocated raw materials, and fixed prices 3) told manufacturers what they could and could not produce.
Federal Emergency Relief Administration
channeled money to state and local agencies to fun their relief projects "people do not eat in the long run--they eat every day
Harry Daugherty
Harding administration 2) Daugherty was implicated for accepting bribes.
Lansing-Ishii Agreement; 1917
Lessened the tension in the feuds between the U.S. and Japan by recognizing Japan's sphere of influence in China in exchange for Japan's continued recognition of the Open Door policy in China.
Gold Standard
it was feared R. would abandon the gold standard => bank runs
Works Progress Administration
1) Headed by Harry Hopkins 2) largest public works program => 650K miles of highway; 125k buildings; 8k parks; 124k bridges; 3) Federal Number One, a program for artists, musicians and theatre people and writers for murals, sculptures and symphony orchestras
Walt Disney
Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs 2) Example of escapist entertainment
Schenck v United States
Court case that limited freedom of speech 2) upheld the Espionage Act 3) under certain circumstances, the SC can limit free speech.
Cecil B. DeMille (1881-1959)
Motion picture producer and director; he was famous for Biblical films and epic movies.
World Court
The judicial arm of the League of Nations; supported by several presidents.
direct money from the government to impoverished families
Gone with the Wind
Civil War epic movie 2) first African American Oscar winner
Black Tuesday
October 29, 1929 2) Day the stock market collapsed
Bonus Marchers
veterans who went to Washington demanding promised payment 2) moved into a Hooverville in Washington 3) Hoover cleared them out => two veterans were shot => diminished view of Hoover
Election of 1924: candidates
With Republican Coolidge running against Democrat Davis and Progressive LaFollette; the liberal vote was split between the Democrat and the Progressive; allowing Coolidge to win.
Selective Service
the requirement that all men between 21 and 30 must register for the military draft
The Central Powers
Military alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungry, Bulgaria and the Ottoman Empire.
trying to guess what the stock market will do given the economic situation 2) In the 20s, people assumed it would continue to go up.
bank run
people go to the bank and take their money out of it for fear that they might lose it
Second New Deal
Started in 1935
Election of 1920: candidates; issues; vice-presidential candidates
Republican; Warren G. Harding; with V.P. running mate Coolidge; beat Democrat; Governor James Cox; with V.P. running mate; FDR. The issues were WW I; the post-war economy and the League of Nations.
Farm Security Administration
gave loans to tenants so they could purchase farms
KDKA; Pittsburgh
One of the first radio stations to pioneer in commercial radio broadcasting in 1920. By 1922 there were 508 radio stations.
Success of first New deal
Astonishing amount of legislation => lack of prosperity => reopened and strengthened banks => fewer houses were lost => noticeable change in the spirit of the American people => inspiring
John J Pershing
US general who chased Villa over 300 miles into Mexico but didn't capture him
Criticism from the Left and Right of New Deal
deficit spending; abandoned balanced budget; business alarmed at growing deficit; American Liberty League; left through Roosevelt had not gone far enough; wanted more gains
Court Packing Plan
1) R wanted to increase the size of the Supreme Court from 2) Sent bill to congress in '37: if a justice served for 10 years and didn't retire at 70, then the president could appoint another judge; passing of the bill would have allowed Roosevelt to appoint 6 new judged immediately => R's first serious mistake => Supreme court backing down on some of R's legislation
US lawmakers and senators that were against the Treaty of Versailles
Robert Lansing
Secretary of State during WW1 2) wanted America to enter WW1
Leopold and Loeb case
Nathan Leopold and Richard Loeb were convicted of killing a young boy; Bobby Franks; in Chicago just to see if they could get away with it. Defended by Clarence Darrow; they got life imprisonment. Both geniuses; they had decided to commit the perfect murder. The first use of the insanity defense in court.
Federal Farm Board
Agency of the U.S. Department of Agriculture; it offered farmers insurance against loss of crops due to drought; flood; or freeze. It did not guarantee profit or cover losses due to bad farming.
Zimmerman Telegram
March 1917 2) sent from German Foreign Secretary, addressed to German minister in Mexico City 3) Mexico should attack the US if US goes to war with Germany (needed that advantage due to Mexico's proximity to the US) 4) In return, Germany would give back Tex, NM, Arizona etc to Mexico. 5) Got America involved in the war
margin call
demanding to be repaid what you loaned
John Works
Civil War Veteran; US Senator 2) believed America should stay neutral in WW1
Bruce Barton; The Man Nobody Knows; 1925
Advertising executive Barton called Jesus the "founder of modern business" because he picked men up from the bottom ranks and built a successful empire.
public works
government financed building projects 2) intended to replace jobs lost in the private sector 3) created some jobs, but only for fraction of the millions who were unemployed
Congress of Industrial Organizations
New creation of CIO; federation of industrial unions
Committee for Industrial Organization
set up to organize unions that included all workers in a particular industry
Triple Entente
Between Britain, France & Russia 2) in response to Germany's growing strength and naval superiority
National Housing Act
received 500 mil to subsidize loans for low cost housing
What Harding wanted a return to "normalcy" - the way life was before WW I.
Townsend Plan
Francis Townsend; federal government pay citizens over 60 a pension of 200$ a month; might lead to more spending => fear of a coalition against Roosevelt because of popularity of the idea
Farm Credit Administration
1) Helped farmers refinance their mortgages; good for farmers 2) took money away from the larger businesses that may have thrived from it
Last New Deal Reforms
1) National Housing Act 2) Farm Security Administration 3) Fair Labor Standards Act
Agricultural Adjustment Act
helped farmers => greater help to larger farmers who specialized on a single crop
Esch-Cummins Transportation Act
Provided for the return of railroads to private control 2) widened powers of the Interstate Commerce Commission.
Franco-Russian Alliance
Between France and Russia 2) in response to Triple Alliance
T.S. Elliot
Poet 2) "The Wasteland" 3) Modernist writer who displayed profound despair. Considered the foundation of modernist; 20th century poetry.
Election of 1932
1) Roosevelt (D) vs Hoover (R) 2) R wins all but six states; New Deal
The Lost Generation
Writer Gertrude Stein named the new literary movement when she told Hemingway; "You are all a lost generation;" referring to the many restless young writers who gathered in Paris after WW I. Hemingway used the quote in The Sun Also Rises. They thought that the U.S. was materialistic and the criticized conformity.
Triple Alliance
Between Germany, Italy & Austria Hungary => Russian concern
victory gardens
What Hoover encouraged US citizens to plant to raise their own vegetables in order to leave more for the troops
Reconstruction Finance Corporation (RFC)
made loans to businesses 2) lent about 238 mil to 160 banks, 60 railroads and 18 building-and-loan organizations 3) overly cautious => failed to increase its lending sufficiently to meet the need => continued decline in the economy
Article X
part of the Versailles Treaty 2) morally bound the U. S. to aid any member of the League of Nations that experienced any external aggression 3) lead US to not ratify Treaty of Versailles
Senator George Norris (1861-1944); Muscle Shoals
He served in Congress for 40 years and is often called the Father of the Tennessee Valley Authority; a series of dams and power plants designed to bring electricity to some of the poorest areas of the U.S.; like Appalachia.
American Liberty League
Anti New Deal organization to "teach necessity of respect for the rights of person and property"
Charles Lindbergh (1902-1974); Spirit of St. Louis
Lindbergh flew his airplane; the Spirit of St. Louis; across the Atlantic in the first transatlantic solo flight.
Immigration Acts; 1921; 1924; Quota System 1921
First legislation passed which restricted the number of immigrants. Quota was 357;800; which let in only 2% of the number of people of that nationality that were allowed in in 1890. 1924 - Limited the number of immigrants to 150;000 per year.
Kellogg-Briand Pact; 1928
"Pact of Paris" or "Treaty for the Renunciation of War;" it made war illegal as a tool of national policy; allowing only defensive war. The Treaty was generally believed to be useless.
League of Nations
International organization formed in 1920 to promote cooperation and peace among nations 2) America was not a member
Frances Perkins
1) woman 2) appointed Secretary of Labor 3) helped pull female vote to Roosevelt's side
Federal Number One
1) Part of the Works Progress Administration 2) controversial
Broad movement in Protestantism in the U.S. which tried to preserve what it considered the basic ideas of Christianity against criticism by liberal theologies. It stressed the literal truths of the Bible and creation.
Seattle General Strike
Entire city went on strike to gain back conditions lost at end of war
Sussex Pledge
A promise Germany made to America, after Wilson threatened to sever ties, to stop sinking their ships without warning.
Father Coughlin
priest from Detroit w/ radio show; wanted to inflate currency and nationalize bank system => National Union for Social Justice, which some feared would become a new political party
Babe Ruth; Jack Dempsey
1920's sports heros; R. set the baseball record of 60 home runs in one season and D. was the heavyweight boxing champion.
Roosevelt's Divided Administration
1) New Nationalism = government agencies should work with businesses 2) group that distrusted big business and wanted government planners to run key parts of the economy 3) "New Freedom" adherents of Wilson = trust busting and regulation to keep competition fair
Grant Wood
painter 2) American Gothic
open-road wanderers who traveled the country by walking, hitchhiking or "riding the rails."
bull market
a long period of rising stock prices
Tennessee Valley Authority
built dams to control floods and bring electricity to rural areas; still active today
Dust Bowl
in the Great Plains 2) caused by uncultivated plains 3) winds brought dust into the air that ruined things 4) prompted migration out of the Great Plains toward California
Fireside Chats
Radio addresses by Roosevelt => appeal to trust banks and stop storing money beneath a mattress => trust in banks
Fourteen Points
Goals put forth by Woodrow Wilson in the peace negotiations after WWI 2) one of which was these was the League of Nations
Fair Labor Standards Act
1) abolished child labor 2) limited workweek to 44 hours 3) first federal minimum wage at .25 cents/hour
Harlem Renaissance; Langston Hughes (1902-1967)
Hughes was a gifted writer who wrote humorous poems; stories; essays and poetry. Harlem was a center for black writers; musicians; and intellectuals.
As part of the Treaty of Versailles; Germany was ordered to pay fines to the Allies to repay the costs of the war. Opposed by the U.S.; it quickly lead to a severe depression in Germany.
German Submarine
Committee on Public Information
1) Established by Wilson in 1917 2) Headed by George Creel 3) attempted to sell the war to Americans 4) pictured Germans as evil monsters
Election of 1920
Harding (R) vs Cox (D) 2) Main issue was the treaty of Versailles
Huey Long
Governor of LA; champion of poor and downtrodden; criticized the rich; had a powerful—but corrupt—political machine
Ku Klux Klan in the 1920's
Based on the post-Civil War terrorist organization; the Invisible Empire of the Knights of the Ku Klux Klan was founded in Georgia in 1915 by William Simmons to fight the growing "influence" of blacks; Jews and It experienced phenomenal Catholics in US society. growth in the 1920's; especially in the Midwest and Ohio Valley states. It's peak membership came in 1924 at 3 million members; but its reputation for violence led to rapid decline by 1929.
New Woman; Flappers
1920's - Women started wearing short skirts and bobbed hair; and had more sexual freedom. They began to abandon traditional female roles and take jobs usually reserved for men.
American boat that was sunk by the German U-boats 2) caused America to consider entering WWI
Sedition Act
1918 2) made it illegal to try to prevent the sale of war bonds or to speak negatively about the government/the flag/the military/the constitution (basic denial of freedom of speech!).
Harry Hopkins
1) Placed in charge of FERA and later developed CWA. 2) "People don't eat in the long run--they eat every day." 3) Later put in charge of Works Progress Administration
National War Labor Board
Board that prevented strikes from workers that might disrupt the war effort
Wizard of Oz
Movie 2) lifted viewers' sprits
Versailles Conference; Versailles Treaty
The Palace of Versailles was the site of the signing of the peace treaty that ended WW I on June 28; 1919. Victorious Allies imposed punitive reparations on Germany.
Teapot Dome
1929 2) The Naval strategic oil reserve at Elk Hills 3) taken out of the Navy's control and placed in the hands of the Department of the Interior; which leased the land to oil companies 4) Several Cabinet members received payments as bribes. 5) Due to the investigation; Daugherty; Denky; and Fall were forced to resign.
Sit Down Strikes
workers refused to continue working; they would just sit down; organized by CIO => United Auto Workers doing it => violence in Flint when police got on it
Rudolph Valentino (1895-1926); Charlie Chaplin
Valentino; a romantic leading man; was one of the most popular dramatic stars of silent films. Chaplin was a popular star of silent slap-stick comedies.
Dawes Plan; Young Plan
Post-WW I depression in Germany left it unable to pay reparation and Germany defaulted on its payments in 1923. In 1924; U.S. Vice President Charles Dawes formulated a plan to allow Germany to make its reparation payments in annual installments. This plan was renegotiated and modified in 1929 by U.S. financier Owen Young.
Hundred Days
F1) ear that R would abandon the gold standard => bank runs => bank holidays => start of New Deal => 15 major acts to resolve economic crisis => First New Deal
Alfred E. Smith
Feared that America was becoming too socialistic

Deck Info