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Civil Rights Movement


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Richard Nixon's Acceptance of the Republican Party Nomination for President, August 8th, 1968
"My fellow Americans...we make history tonight not for ourselves but for the ages. The choice we make in 1968 will deternine not only the future of America but the future of peace and freedom in the world for the last third of te 20th century, and the question that we answer tonight: can America meet this great challenge?"
Lyndon Baines Johnson
US President 1963-1969
Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) 1942
organization that was dedicated to bringing about change through peaceful confrontation
black nationalism
a belief in the separate identity and racial unity of the African American community
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Commitee (SNCC) 1960
student led organization which sought immediate change in the civil right movement
Lee Harvey Oswald
suspected of killing John F Kennedy
Robert Kennedy
US Attorney General
black power
a call to African Americans to unite, to recognize thier heritage, build a sense of community, define own goals, etc
de jure segregation
racial separation created by law
Jackie Robinson
first African American to play in Major League Baseball
Orval Faubus
governor of Arkansas in 1957
de facto segregation
separation caused by social conditions such as poverty
nonviolent protest
a peaceful way of protesting against restrictive racial policies
Malcolm X
leading minister of the Nation of Islam until 1964, then he organized the Muslim Mosque, Inc; he fought for black nationalism
staying seated at a segregated public place when refused service
Freedom Rides
designed to test whether southern states would obey Supreme Court rulings for African American rights
Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. April 3, 1968, "I've Been to the Mountaintop" speech
"Men, for years now, have been talking about war and peace. But now, no longer can they just talk about it. It is no longer a choice between violence and nonviolence in this world; it's nonviolence or nonexistence. That is where we are today."
the bringing together of different races
Montgomery bus boycott
plan for African Americans to refuse to use the bus system until companies agreed to change segregation policies
Robert F. Kennedy - April 4, 1968 after the assassination of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
"What we need in the United States is not division; what we need in the United States is not hatred; what we need in the United States is not violence and lawlessness, but it is love and wisdom, and compassion toward one another, and a feeling of justice toward those who still suffer within our country, whether they be white or whether they be black."
NAACP (1909)
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
Robert Moses
one of SNCC's most influential leaders
Boynton v. Virginia 1960
ruled that bus station waiting rooms and restaurants could not be segregated
Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) 1957
was started by Martin Luther King Jr. and advocated the practice of nonviolent protest
March on Washington 1963
200,000 came to Washington D.C. to call for "jobs and freedom"
Voting Rights Act of 1965
eliminated literacy test as a voting requirement
Dwight D. Eisenhower
US President 1953-1961
President Lyndon Johnson, March 31, 1968, announcing that he would not seek re-election
"Yet, I believe that we must always be mindful of this one thing, whatever the trials and the tests ahead. The ultimate strength of our country and our cause will lie not in powerful weapons or infinite resources or boundless wealth, but will lie in the unity of our people."
Thurgood Marshall
first African American Supreme Court Justice
Brown v. Board of Education Topeka 1954
ruled separate but equal facilties were unconstitutional
Nation of Islam
preached black separation and self-help
a 3/5 vote to limit debate and call for a vote in Congress
Martin Luther King Jr
became the spokesperson for the Montgomery bus boycott
Sirhan Sirhan
assassinated Robert Kennedy in 1968
24th amendment
eliminated the poll tax as a voting requirement
African American Migration
many African Americans migrated to large northern cities after the Civil War
National Urban League 1911
helped African Americans moving out of the South find homes and jobs and ensured that they received fair treatment at work
John F Kennedy
US President 1960-1963
Rosa Parks
refused to give up her seat on a bus and was arrested in 1955
tactic which senators prevent a vote on a bill by taking the floor and refusing to stop talking
James Earl Ray
convicted of killing Martin Luther King Jr. in 1968 and sentenced to 99 years in jail
Civil Rights Act of 1964
outlawed discrimination in employment on the basis of race, sex, or religion
Plessy v. Ferguson 1896
ruled that separate but equal facilities are constitutional
both African Americans and whites are involved

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