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lateral "s" shape of the spine, when viewed posteriorly, that may be caused by functional or structural abnormalities
responsibility of the rib cage
protection of internal organs and assisting the lungs in respiration
anatomy of the hip joint bones
pelvis, femur
symptom of groin strain
decreased ROM in adduction, decreased strength
floating ribs
inferior 2 sets; only attach to the thoracic vertebrae with no anterior attachments
general name of cervical sprains
basic rehab exercises
bridging, hip extension in lying, adductor squeeze, hip abduction side-lying, hip abduction standing, straight leg raise, hip flexion
main role of spinal column
protection of the spinal cord from damage
compression fracture
results from sever hyperflexion of the trunk
lateral epicondylitis
tennis elbow
primary anterior torso muscles
pectoralis and abdominal
number of sets of ribs in the rib cage
3 regions of the spine
cervical, thoracic, lumbar
symptom of hamstring strain
decreased ROM in knee extension, decreased strength in knee flexion
symptom of dislocation of shoulder
arm appears out of position
symptoms of pectoralis strain
pain at injury site, decreased ROM, decreased strength
flail chest
fracture of 3+ consecutive ribs on the same side; can lead to breathing difficulties
carpal tunnel
compression of median nerve in the wrist
symptoms of rib injuries
sever pain over injured site, pain increases with inhalation, possible swelling and discoloration, crepitus
non-union fracture
heals wrong -- broken part doesn't heal back together
symptom of brachial plexus
nerve in the middle of the neck is stretched
redicular pain
pain that radiates down the specific dermatome that is being compressed
lumbar sprains and strains
extremely common in athletics and the cause of low back pain
wrapping the thigh
used to reduce swelling and secure ice/heat packs
treatment of trapezius strain
stretching, strengthening program, RICE
symptoms of intervertebral disc injuries
sharp pain over affected disc, decreased ROM, pain increasing with flexion and decreasing with extension, radicular pain, muscle weakness
costal cartilage
fibrous structure that surrounds and connects the upper 10 ribs to themselves and the sternum
superficial spinal muscles
erector spinae and paraspinal muscles
most common form of spinal fracture
treatment of pectoralis strain
location of most lumbar spinal injuries
discs between L4-L5 and L5-S1
how to increase ROM in cervical sprain
light stretching and massage
intercostals muscles
within the rib cage and assist in respiration
treatment of hamstring strain
RICE, ice and massage useful to break up scar tissue
symptom of tensor fascia latae strain
pain and tightness at affected site; decreased ROM in ab/adduction
jersey finger
rupture of the flexor tendon from the distal phalanx; generally ruptured after attempting to grab an opponent's jersey
medial epicondylitis
pitchers/golfers elbow
symptoms of latissimus dorsi strain
Pain at injury site in lower back, decreased ROM, decreased strength
trapezius and latissimus dorsi
major muscles in the posterior region of the torso
symptoms of lumbar strains and sprains
pain localized over injury site, muscle spasms, increased pain in certain motions and positions, decreased ROM
number of vertebrae comprising the cervical spine
mallet finger
rupture of the extensor tendon; frequently occurs because of direct contact to the tip of the finger -- usually a ball
number of vertebrae comprising the lumbar spine
MOI of rotator cuff
overhead activity
location of intervertebral disc injury
cervical and lumbar spine
composition of thorax
rib cage and muscles that flex and extend the spine and upper body
symptoms of lumbar spinal fractures
pain, possible neural symptoms, slight swelling and discoloration, muscles spasms
intervertebral disc
sack of fluid and cartilage that lies between the vertebrae
hump-backed spine
symptoms of sternal contusion/fracture
severe pain, pain increases with breathing, swelling and discoloration, crepitus
symptoms of thigh contusion
calcification, discoloration, stiffness over time
adductor muscles
inside the thigh and help move leg toward the body
cause of costal cartilage damage
direct blow or forcible twisting motion
number of vertebrae comprising the thoracic spine
anatomy of the rotator cuff
supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor, subscapularis
tensor fascia latae strain
causes pain at the hip with activity
3 main muscles of the hip flexor
iliacus, psoas major, and rectus femoris
how vertebrae connect
facets and intervertebral discs
cause of cervical spine injuries
repetitive forces or traumatic axial forces loaded onto the neck
anatomy of the hamstrings
biceps cruris, semitendinosus, smimembranosus
hip pointer
general designation for a contusion to the iliac crest and the muscles that attach to the crest
stretching as preventative care
quadriceps, hip flexor, adductor (groin), and hamstring
spinal cord
direct neural link from the brain to all parts of the body
poor blood supply that can lead to a non-union fracture
anatomy of the quadriceps
rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, vastus intermedialis
thigh contusion
most often occurs as a result of direct contact to the quadriceps muscles
runs from the pelvis to the neck and encompasses the entire chest and thorax region
anatomy of the shoulder girdle
humerus, scapula, clavicle
symptoms of cervical sprain
pain throughout neck, significant decrease in ROM, muscle spasms
symptoms of cervical and thoracic spinal fractures
pain and tenderness, restricted ROM, numbness and tingling, weakness in extremities, possible paralysis
brachial plexus
commonality of cervical and thoracic fractures in athletics
shoulder strain
injury of shoulder muscles
shoulder sprain
injury of shoulder ligaments
symptoms of costochondral sprain
severe pain over injured site, pain increases with inhalation, possible swelling and discoloration, crepitus
cervical spine
closest to the skull and provides the neck with a wide range of motion without compromising the spinal cord
symptoms of abdominal strain
pain at injury site, decreased ROM, decreased strength
symptoms of trapezius strain
Pain at injury site in upper back, decreased ROM, decreased strength in affected movements
most general complaint regarding spine
lumbar pain
anatomy of the hand
carpals, metacarpals, phalanges; proximal/distal interphalangeal joints
common sports of rotator cuff injuries
baseball, softball, volleyball
anatomy of the spine
cervical has slight anterior curve, thoracic curves back posteriorly, lumbar adjusts anteriorly again
treatment of thigh contusion
RICE, knee flexion to stretch muscle, ice massage, friction massage, and stretching to break up scar tissue
mechanism of injury
cause of fracture or contusion
direct blow to the ribs
symptom of subluxation of shoulder
sometimes a bump over the AC joint
responsibility of the sternum
protection of the heat and allows the ribs to move properly
symptoms of paraspinal strain
pain just lateral to the spine, pain with back extension and rotation, muscle spasms, slight swelling
anatomy of the elbow
humerus, radius, ulna
symptom of shoulder fracture
bones appear out of place
superior 10
ribs that wrap around the chest and articulate with the sternum anteriorly and the thoracic vertebrae posteriorly
acronym for rotator cuff
anatomy of the wrist
radius, ulna, carpal bones
2 types of lumbar fractures
compression and process
why cervical sprains occur
result of the head quickly snapping forward then backward
spinal muscles
2 groups: superficial and deep
gamekeeper's thumb
injury of the hand
triangular fibrocartilage complex
deep spinal muscles
splenius and multifidus muscles
treatment of paraspinal strain
RICE with electrical stimulation
why lumbar strains and sprains occur
forced flexion, extension, or rotation
flat back appearance due to decreased anterior curve
protrusion from the vertebrae that both allow and restrict motion as needed

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