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Martini cardiovascular 1

Terms

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Capillaries
small vessels that interconnect the smallest veins and arteries; called exchange vessels because their thin walls permit the exchange of nutrients, dissolved gases and waste products between the blood and surrounding tissues
Cardiac vein
collect blood from the myocardial capillaries and deliver it back to the right atrium directly or indirectly
Aortic sinuses
saclike dilations of the base of the ascending aorta - help prevent individual cusps from sticking to the walls of the aorta when the valve opens
Right and left pulmonary arteries
branches of the pulmonary trunk - lead to the lungs where gas exchange occurs between the pulmonary capillaries and respiratory membrane
Aortic branches
ascending aorta, aortic arch, and descending aorta, collectively
Aortic semilunar valve
consists of three thick half-moon shaped (semilunar) cusps and leads to the ascending aorta - prevents backflow
Marginal arteries
branch of the right coronary artery can be +1 branches that extend across the ventricular surface
Anastomoses
interconnections between arteries
Superior vena cava
opens into the posterior, superior portion of the right atrium to deliver venous blood from head, neck, upper limbs and chest
Base
superior portion of the heart where the heart is attached to the major vessels of systemic and pulmonary circuits
Apex
inferior pointed tip that points laterally at an oblique angle
Small cardiac vein
drains the posterior surface of the right atrium and ventricle (indirectly)
Valves
folds of endocardium that extend into the openings between the atria and ventricles that open and close to prevent backflow of blood
Functional syncytium
(fused mass of cells) has been used to describe the contraction of cardiac muscle because contraction of one cell will stimulate the contraction of another and spread throughout the myocardium
Anterior interventricular artery
runs in the anterior interventricular and supplies myocardium of this sulcus and anterior ventricular myocardium
Left atrioventricular valve
located between the left atrium and left ventricle - prevents backflow - also known as mitral valve and bicuspid valve
Pericardial cavity
potential space in which the heart is located - anterior chest wall, directly posterior to the sternum - between the two pleural cavities, in the mediastinum
Coronary sulcus
groove that marks the border between the atria and ventricles
Moderator band
ventricular muscle that extends from the interventricular septum to the anterior wall of the right ventricle
Epicardium
outermost layer that forms the external surface of the heart
Veins
return blood to the heart
Left ventricle
receives O2-rich blood from the left atrium - thickest of all heart chambers which allows it to develop enough pressure to force blood through the entire systemic circuit - internal structure is similar to right ventricle but trabeculae carneae is more prominent
Conus arteriosus
cone-shaped superior end of the right ventricle
Right and left pulmonary veins
formed from small veins branching from the pulmonary capillaries - carry oxygenated blood back to the heart
Posterior interventricular sulcus
depression on the posterior surface of the heart - marks the division of the left and right ventricles
Middle cardiac vein
runs in the posterior interventricular sulcus (indirectly)
Gap junctions
connect cardiac muscle cells resulting in action potentials moving from one cell to another as if the membranes were continuous
Inferior border
formed by the bottom of the right ventricle
Mitral valve
located between the left atrium and left ventricle - prevents backflow- also known as bicuspid valve and left atrioventricular valve
Fibrous skeleton
internal connective tissues of the heart
Circumflex artery
curves to the left within the coronary sulcus eventually reaching the posterior surface of the heart
Posterior interventricular artery
branch of the right coronary artery that runs in the post interventricular sulcus and supplies this septum and adjacent portions of ventricles
Inferior vena cava
opens into the posterior inferior portion of right atrium and delivers venous blood from the lower trunk, viscera and limbs
Pectinate muscles
muscular ridges that extend along the inner surface of the right atrium
Left atrium
receive O2 rich blood from the right and left pulmonary veins lacks pectinate muscles, but has an auricle
Descending aorta
descends into the thoracic cavity
Right border
formed by the right atrium
Posterior cardiac vein
drains the posterior surface of the heart (indirectly)
Anterior cardiac veins
drain the anterior surface of the right ventricle (directly)
Left border
formed by the left ventricle
Desmosomes
locks the two membranes of two cardiac muscle cells together
Auricle
expandable extension of the atrial walls
Papillary muscles
cone-shaped muscular projections of the inner ventricular surface to which the chordae tendineae attach - function to limit movement of valve cusps and prevent backflow of blood
Fossa ovalis
depression marking the remnant of the foramen ovale - fetal opening between right and left atria - closes approximately 48 hours after birth
Anterior interventricular sulcus
depression on anterior surface of the heart - makes the division of left and right ventricles
Ventricles
propel blood around the systemic and pulmonary circuits - thick walls
Diaphragmatic surface
posterior surface that is in contact with the diaphragm
Coronary circulation
supplies blood to the heart muscle via the coronary blood vessels
Sternocostal surface
anterior surface that is in contact with the sternum of the rib cage
Ascending aorta
ascends from the base of the heart, receives O2 rich blood from left ventricle
Coronary sinus
collecting vessel into which all coronary veins drain
Atrial arteries
branch of the right coronary artery that supplies the myocardium of the right atrium
Pulmonary circuit
carries carbon dioxide rich blood from the heart to the gas exchange surfaces of the lungs, and returns oxygen-rich blood to the heart
Trabeculae carneae
irregular muscular folds of the internal surface of the right ventricle
Bicuspid valve
located between left atrium and left ventricle - prevents backflow - also known as left atrioventricular valve and mitral valve
Interatrial septum
separates the right and left atrium
Intercalated discs
specialized cell junctions unique to cardiac muscle tissue
Superior border
formed by the base
Ligamentum arteriosum
fibrous band that marks the remnant of the ductus arteriosus
Atria
receive venous blood that continues to the ventricles - walls are relatively thin and distensible
Right atrium
receives O2-poor blood from systemic circuit via superior vena cava and inferior vena cava
Myofibrils
firmly anchored to the cell membrane at the intercalated disc - causes several muscle cells to pull together maximizing efficiency
Arteries
transport blood away from the heart
Pulmonary semilunar valve
consists of three thick semilunar cusps and leads to the pulmonary trunk - also prevents backflow
Aortic arch
branch of the aorta between the ascending and descending portions
Interventricular septum
separates the right and left ventricles
Chordae tendineae
bundles of collagen fibers to which the cusps of the right atrioventricular valve attach
Systemic circuit
transports oxygen rich blood from the heart to the rest of the body's cells, and returns carbon dioxide-rich blood to the heart
Pulmonary trunk
the start of the pulmonary circuit - contains right and left pulmonary veins and right and left pulmonary arteries
Great cardiac vein
runs in the anterior interventricular sulcus (indirect)
Cardiocytes
cardiac muscle cells - relatively small cells with centrally placed nucleus
Endocardium
innermost layer (deep to the myocardium) that consists of simple squamous epithelium - covers the inner surface of the heart, including the valves
Myocardium
middle layer (Deep to the epicardium) that consists of multiple, interlocking layers of cardiac muscle tissue, with associated connective tissue, blood vessels, and nerves
Right ventricle
receives O2 poor blood from the right atrium via the right atrioventricular (tricuspid) valve
Left coronary artery
branches off the aorta between the left atria and left ventricle - major branches are the circumflex artery and anterior interventricular artery
Pericardium
serous membrane lining the pericardial cavity (parietal) and the heart (visceral)
Right coronary artery
branches off the aorta and follows coronary sulcus - contains the branches: atrial arteries, marginal arteries, the posterior interventricular artery, and branches to the conducting system

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