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history exam


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Samuel Adams
Boston's best know "ramble rouser" wanted the colonists to declare their independence from England. was one of the founders of the committees of correspondence
Gavrilo Princip
member of the Black Hand who killed Franz Ferdinand and his wife Sophie.
Gettysberg & Vicksburg
marked the turning point in the Civil War. Confederates would neever again invade the North
National Women Suffrage Association
(1869) founded by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B Anthony called for the addition of an amendment to the Constitution of the United States giving women the right to vote.
Francis Willard
began the Women's Christian temperance Union.
Tea Act
(1773) The act let the British East India Company bypass the colonial tea merchants and sell directly to the colonists. Although colonists would have to pay the tea tax, they would not have to pay the higher price charged by the merchants. Colonial tea merchants were angry because they had been cut out of the tea trade.
John Winthrop
A respected Puritan minister. He was elected the Mass. Bay Colony's first governor.
Declaratory Act
(1766) England can make any law it wishes for the colonies
loyalty to a state or a section, rather than to the country as a whole. Many Southerners were united by their support for slavery.
virginia & kentucky resolutions
state that the states did not have to follow a national law that the states felt was unconstitutional
Virginia Company
gave the Virginia settlers some power of self-government
patrick henry
1736-1799 son of the fronteir farmer found little success in his early days. With help of his friends was licensed to practice law and eventually elected to the virginia house of burgesses. An early radical and an ambitious self-promoter and a fierce orator.
Carrie Chapman Catt
Took up the cause of women's right to vote after the deaths of Stanton and Anthony, she became the head of NAWSA, an inspired speaker, and brilliant organizer.
lexington and concord
1775 "the shot heard around the world" eight colonists were killed
first continental congress
1774 passed a regulation backing massachusetts in its struggle. They agreed to boycott all british goods nd stop exporting good to england until the intolerable acts were repelled. They called for each colony to form a colonial militia
Proclamation of 1763
Colonists were forbidden to settle west of the Appalachian mountains. All settlers already west of the line were "to remove themselves" at once. British sent 10,000 red coats to enforce the law. Colonists were angered.
John Wilkes Booth
a popular actor from the South who assassinated Lincoln on April 14, 1865 while Lincoln was attending a play at Ford's Theater.
Robert Gould Shaw
Regiment commander of the 54th. Massachusetts
james k. polk
elected president in 1844, an expansionist who favored extension of american territory into mexico
Townshend Acts
(1767) A tax passed by the British on glass, paper, paint, lead and tea. British tax officials were sent to the colonies with orders to stop smuggling and bribery. Tax collectors were granted writs of assistance to inspect a ship's cargo or warehouse without giving a reason.
J. Pierpont Morgan
the most powerful banker of the late 1880s. He used his banking profits to gain control of major corporations (Carnegie Steel)
black codes
Southern legislatures passed laws which limited the rights of freemen.
Plessy vs. Ferguson
the Supreme Court ruled that segregation was legal so long as the facilities for blacks and whites were equal.
aaron burr
angered at Alexander hamilton for supporting thomas jefferson for president and because hamilton had referred to him as "unprincipled" there took place a duel in which her shot and killed hamilton
the opponents of the constitution
lewis and clarke
1804 they explored the louisiana territory mapping out the new land an describing the animals, climate, indians and flora of the region
Mary Lyon
founder of the first women's college in the U.S. (Mt Holyoke Female Seminary 1837)
John Smith
considered by some historians to be the savior of the Jamestown Colony. His basic rule was that those who did not work would not eat.
Virginia's cash crop
Jefferson Davis
President of the Confederate States of America
"No Taxation Without Representation"
Riots in Boston, New York City, Newport, and Charleston, protesting the Stamp Tax Act.
members of it gave george washington advice and directed their departments
Interstate Commerce Commission
to oversee the railroads and enforce the Interstate Commerce ACt forbidding practices such as rebates.
john hancock
1736-1793 the richest man in new england before the war. He bankrolled the colonial cause. Attended the continental congress and served as president of the congress. Hancock hoped to command the continental army and was annoyed when George Washington was named. he was the first and most visible signer of the declaration.
frederick douglas
former slave, extraordinary speaker and writer, started his newspaper "the north star", critical of the mexican war
the upper House, with two votes per state
(1879) African americans who left the South for a better life in Kansas
trail of tears
october 1, 1838 removal of cherokees westward to reservations, thousands died of sickness, of drought, of the heat and exposure
refers to the rebuilding of the South after the Civil War
is a tendency to oppose change, like to hold on to ideas from the past
James Oglethrope
Founder of Georgia Colony for English debtors.
Pennsylvania Colony
the most ethinically diversified colony in colonial America.
Preamble to the Constitution
states the goals of the Constitution
poll tax
required voters to pay a fee each time they voted
Declaration of Sentiments
adopted at the Seneca Falls Convention (1848) addressing a wide range of women's concerns especially the right to vote.
Thomas Hooker
wanted strict limits on government. He and his followers set up a colony in Connecticut.
Mary Church Terrell
founded the National Association of Colored Women.
Sherman Antritrust Act
(1890) the act banned the formation of trusts and monopolies.
implied powers
powers that the government need to carry out its duties but that are not written
easterners who came west to get freel and under the Homestead Act
Sons of Liberty
staged protests against British policies from Boston to Charleston. Staged mock hangings of straw effigies dressed like British officials. Tried to bully the government tax collectors.
group of corporations run by a single boards of directors.
william lloyd garrison
an abolitionist founder of the newspaper the "liberator" denounced the war against mexico
Andrew Carnegie
controlled all phases of the steel industry, from mining ore to the finished product. In 1892, combined all his businesses into the Carnegie Steel Company
organizations of workers who bargain with employers as a group
W.E.B. Du Bois
first African American to earn a Ph.D. from Harvard University. He urged blacks to fight discrimination actively, with other reformers he formed the NAACP worked to gain equal rights for African Americans.
Radical Republicans
wanted to protect the rights of former slaves
james ottis
1725-1785 one of the most radicals of boston, his pamphlets declared the right of the colonists to refuse to pay taxes based on his belief that "no taxation without representation is tyranny." his behavior became erratic when he bagan to fire pistols and broke windows. he died when his farm house was struck by lightning.
First slaves brought to Jamestown, Virginia.
Knights of Labor
did not believe in strikes, relied on rallies and meetings to win public support. Goals included a shorter work day, and end to child labor, and equal pay for men and women.
zachary taylor
ordered by polk to lead his troops across the Nueces River, defeated mexicans at the battle of Beuna Vista
William Jennings Bryan
a younh Democratic congressman from Nebraska who believe in "free silver" and was supported by both the Democrats and Populists. He was narrowly defeated by McKinley in the election of 1896
George and Cecilius Calvert
founders of Maryland Colony.
Founding Fathers
refers to the fifty-five delegates to the Constitutional Convention who drafted the Consitution of the U.S.
marbury vs. madison
began a process called "judicial review" gave the supreme court the power to declare an act passed by congress to be unconstitutional
wants to change things from the bottom up (grass movements)
the supporters of the constitution of the united states
The French & Indian War
(1754-1763) Fought between England and France for control of the resources located in the Ohio Valley. Redcoats led by General James Wolfe; French by Marquis de Montcalm. Both Generals died on the Plains of Abraham. Quebec and Montreal falls to the English
Person believed to have saved John Smith
to reject the proposal of a bill
Gaspee Burning
(1772) A blaze that was a great beacon calling to arms against the British, event referred to as "the Lexington of the Sea." Led by Rhode Islanders
a two-house legislature
Chinese Exclusion Act
(1882) bars Chinese immigrants into the United States
Jim Crow Laws
segregation laws separating people in schools, restaurants, theaters, trains, street cars, playgrounds, hospitals, and cemertaries.
American Federation of Labor
led the fight for collective bargaining, the right of unions to negotiate with management for workers as group. Supported the use of the strike to achieve its goals.
Committee of Correspondences
Samuel Adams started a letter writing campaign and pamphlets. Before long, committees of correspondences became a major tool of protest in every colony informing other colonist what had occurred in Boston.
Populist Party
formed in 1891 by farmers and labor unions demanded government help from falling farm prices and regulation of railroads
checks and balances
the power of each branch is balanced by the powers of the other branches
treaty of guadalupe hidalgo
1848 took half of mexico, the texas border was set at the Rio grande
House of Representatives
the lower House, with membership based on population
National Association Opposed to Women Suffrage
called themselves the "Anti's" believed women's place was in the home not in the world of dirty politics.
Boston Tea Party
(1763) about 150 men from many layeres of Boston's economy, masters, and apprentices side by side, blackened their faces with burnt cork, dressed as Indians boarded the three British ships in the Boston Harbor and dumped the tea into the bay. England responded with the passage of the Coercion Act.
henry david thoreau
denounced the mexican war and refused to pay taxes for a war that he considered immoral. author of "civil disobedience"
andrew jackson
defeated the creek indians in alabama and the british at new orleans, he was responsible for the indian removal of the cherokee indians
non importation agreements
Colonists agreed to stick together and promised to stpo importing goods taxed by the Townshend Acts. They hoped that the boycott would repeal the Townshend Acts.
Ulysses S. Grant
commander in chief of the Union Army
The Boston Massacre
(March 5, 1770) Colonists gathered outside the Boston customs house. Colonists and redcaots taunted each other and insulted each other. Snowballs, rocks, and oyster shells were thrown by the Boston mob. British shots were fired killing five colonists. Stirred up anti-British feelings.
William Bradford
long time governor of Plymouth Colony
crop that saved the Plymouth Colony, helped by Squanto.
separation of powers
the division of power among the executive, legislative and judicial branches of government
is an act or decision that sets an example for others to follow
another name for Quakers
dr. benjamin church
1734-1778? Earned the unpleasant distinction of being the first colonist caught spying for the british. A physician from boston, church had established powerful credentials as a patriot zealot, being the first on hand to treat the wounded at the boston massacre.
alien and sedition act
passed by federalists making it harder to become citizens and to deport any immigrant deemed dangerous. the second one outlawed the writing, speaking, or publications of false, scandalous, or malicious statements against the government
the power of the house of representatives to accuse the president and other national officials of not carrying out their duties
Franz Ferdinand
heir to the trone of Austria-Hungary was visiting Sarajevo, the capital of Bosnia when he assassinated by a Serbian terrorist group the Black Hand.
Booker T Washington
founded Tuskegee Institute to tach vocational education to Negroes, believe in self-help and self-reliance, felt Negroes should be taught trades.
John J. Pershington
commander of the American Expeditionary Forces in Europe
Mayflower Compact
a solemn agreement that set up a semi-democratic government in Plymouth.
House of Burgesses
In this part of the General Assembly, the members were elected by the colonists.
three-fifth compromise
three-fifths of the slave population would be counted for the purposes of representatives in congress
Civil Service Act
(1893) set up impartial examinations for many federal jobs.
Triple Alliance
Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy
intolerable acts
1774 1. shut down the port of boston 2. Massachusetts forbidden to hold more than one town meeting per year, without the permission of england 3. Customs officers and other officials charged with major crimes would be tried in england 4. Parlaiment passed and new quartering act. british could force citizens to house troops in their home
Quatering Act
(1765) Colonists had to provide food and lodging for English soldiers stationed in Mass.
Trench warfare
soldiers spent day after day shelling the enemy. Then, on ordershye troops charged bravely "over no man's land"
54th Massachusettes Regiment
one of the most famous African units in the Union army. On July 18, 1863, the 54th led an attack on Ft. Wagner near Charlestown, S.C.
The Freedom's Bureau
gave food and clothing to former slaves. It also tried to find jobs for freemen and set up schools to educate them and provide and medical care.
first amendment
guarantees individual liberties, including freedom of religion, speech and press
Jamestown Colony
First permanent English Colony in North America 1607
thomas paine
1737-1809 english born and one fo the colonists pure idealists. Author of the pamphlet "common sense" which in a clear and simply way explained to people what it was time to part from england. Author of "the crisis", "the rights of man", and "the age of reason" all works which encourages the rights of "man".
john o. sullivan
he first used the term manifest destiny
Dorothea Dix
along with Clara Barton, helped to get women to work in military hospitals during the Civil War.
Ku Klux Klan
founded in 1866, to control blacks by violence and threats of violence.
abigail adams
wife of john adams, championed the cause of colonial women
Anne Hutchinson
She believed in saving grace and direct spiritual communication between individuals and God. She settled in Pocasset, R.I.
James Wolfe & De Montcalm
led the British and French troops in the battle of Quebec, on the Plains of Abraham both generals were killed
German submarine torpedoed a British passenger ship off the coast of Ireland. 1,200 people died including 28 Americans.
John D Rockefeller
Established the Standard Oil Company, the greatest, wisest, and meanest monopoly known in history
John Dickinson
Pennsylvania lawyer and leading moderate Patriot. He wanted to petitioin the English King George III.
sixth amendment
guarantees the right to a trial by jury
a change in the Constitution
fourth amendment
protects you from unreasonable search and seizure of your home and property
louisiana purchase
in 1803 double the size of the united states, purchased for 15 million dollars from napoleon by the jefferson administration
elastic clause
gives congress a wide range of implied powers, article 1, section 8, clause 18
George III
King of England during the War for Independence
people working for the rifght of women to vote.
winfield scott
captured and defeated the mexican army at the battle of veracruz
Benedict Arnold
tried to sell West Point to the British
delegated powers
a power expressly stated in the constitution
Zimmermann Telegram
instructed the German foreign secretary to urge Mexico to attack the U.S. if the U.S. declared war on Germany. In return, German would help Mexico gain back Lost American Southwest.
the branch of government that can veto laws
19th Amendment
(1920) Granted the right to vote to women
Maryland Toleration Act
allowered freedom of worship for all Christians
Treaty of Paris
( 1763) England gained a strong foothold west of the Appalachian montains. Provisions of: England gained all of Canada and lands eat of the Miss. R. Gained Florida from spain. France was allowed to keep two islands in the Gulf of St. Lawrence. also Guadaloupe and Martinique in the West Indies. Spain received all French land west of the Mississippi. In addition, Spain gained New Orleans.
john adams
1735-1826 born in braintree (quincy) massachusetts. A harvard educated lawyer, cousin of sam adams. A through but cautious patriot, defended the british soldiers accused in the boston massacre. Among those who drafted the declaration of independence. envoy to france and holland, during the war. instrumental in obtaining aid from both of these countries.
Starving time
Jamestown winter of 1609 and 1610
Triple Entente
France, Russia, and Great Britain
Sir Edward Coke
English lawyer, became Roger Williams's benefactor
Robert E. Lee
Confederate commander of the Southern forces during the Civil War
the supreme law of the land
representative government
Stamp Act
(1765) set a stiff direct tax on virtually every kind of printed matter. ie newspapers, legal documents, wills, marriage licenses, diplomas, almanac, playing cards, dice, etc.
the branch of government that passes laws
due process
means that the government must follow the same fair rules in all cases brought to trial
14th Amendment
granted citizenship to all persons born in the United States. This included all African Americans
she was a shoshone indian who traveled with lewis and clarke
benjamin franklin
1706-1790 a key member of the pennsylvania legislature, he was sent to england as the colony's agent in 1764, emerging as the leading statesman against the stamp act. A member of the second continental congress, and a member of the committee to draft the declaration of independence. was very important in getting the french to support the colonists during the revolution
Harriet Tubman
helped form the underground railroad, returned to the South more than 19 times and led more than 300 slaves to freedom. "Black Moses of the South"
"Stamp Act Congress"
(1765) nine colonies drew up a petition to George III and to Parliament requesting the repeal of the Stamp tax. Parliament refused. The colonists boycotted British goods resulting in the repeal of the act in 1766.
system in which power is divded between central and state governments
wanted to reform the church of England by doing away with many practices of the Roman Catholic Church. Established Mass. Bay Colony.
Homestead Strike
a strike at the Carnegie plant in Homestead, P.A., was the site of violence between workers and armed detectives. Strikebreakers eventually ended the strike.
judicial review
the power of the supreme court to check the legislative branch by declaring laws passed by congress unconstitutional
giving jobs to loyal supporters. (spoils system)
Sugar Act
(1764) British deeply in debt partl to French & Indian War. English Parliament placed a tariff on sugar, coffee, wines, and molasses. colonists avoided the tax by smuggling and by bribing tax collectors.
Alice Paul
In January 1917, picketed the White House, demonstrated, went to jail, and went on a hunger strike to get the attention of the public to put pressure on President Woodrow Wilson.
Mary Dyer
A Quaker woman who was hung on Boston Common in 1660 for her views regarding women's right to preach and her view on the separation of church and state.
Writs of Assistance
General search warrants in Mass. to search for smuggled goods
Transcontinental Railroad (Union Pacific & Central Pacific
built by the Irish, African Americans, Mexicans, and the Chinese. Completed at Promontory Point, Utah
thomas jefferson
1743-1826 born into a well-off farming family in virginia, the declaration's author, scholar, join to the patriotic circle around Patrick Henry, member of the Virginia House of Burgesses, ambassador to paris, france in 1783. An observer of the french revolution
German submarines set up a blockade around Great Britain attackingany ship that entered or left British ports.
bill of rights
refers to the first ten amendments to the constitution of the united states
Fugitive Slave Law
required northerners to return run away slaves to the South
The 15th Amendment
guaranteed blacks the right to vote
Indentured servants
Europeans who agreed to work for a master for seven years
tenth amendment
it protects the powers that have been reserved to the states
the branch of government that can declare an act of Congress unconstitutional.
Literacy tests
required voters to read and explain a section of the Constitution
controls all or nearly all the business of an industry.
nat turner
led a major revolt in southampton county, virginia in 1831 killing more than 57 whites, threw the slave holding south in a panic
broad construction of the constitution
hamilton favored this interpretation of the constitution
Jeannette Rankin
was the first women elected to Congress.
marbury vs. madison
gave the supreme court of the united states the power to declare an act of congress unconstitutional
John Brown
led the raid at Harper's Ferry. He hoped to seize the federal arsenal and set off a slave revolt.
judiciary act of 1789
set up a supreme court consisting of a chief justices and 5 associate justices and 13 district courts and 3 circuit courts
sally hemings
a slave owned by thomas jefferson, who according to some historians bore jefferson children
is defined as having political views that favor civil liberties, and the use of governmental power to promote social change
refers to Puritan belief that God has already chosen those who are saved and those who are damned.
Dawes Act
(1887) encouraged Native Americans to become farmers and to assimilate to American ways
William Penn
founded the colony of Pennsylvania for profit, religious freedom, and political freedom
In Novemner seized power from Provisional Government in russia under the leadership of V.I. Lenin
discounts to railroads biggest customers. this practice forced out the smaller companies.
name given to the British colonists who remained loyal to England

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