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Martini Male reproductive


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Accessory glands
function to provide nutrients for sperm motility, activate the sperm, and produce buffers that counteract acidity of urethra and vagina
Interstitial cells
cells located in the spaces between the seminiferous tubules - produce testosterone
Scrotal cavity
name of compartment that holds the testes
surgical removal of the prepuce is one way to avoid smegma
Efferent ductules
connect the rete testes to the epididymis, where sperm is stored and maturation occurs
late in their development, sperm detach from the sustentacular cells and are free within the lumen of the seminiferous tubule. Since they are not yet motile, fluid currents transport them along the straight tubule, through the rete testes, and into the epididymis
Prostatic urethra
sixth stop in the sperm pathway right after the ejaculatory duct
Accessory glands
fluids contributed by the seminiferous tubules and the epididymis account for only 5% of the final volume of semen - secretions from ______ glands make up the rest
Seminiferous tubules
long coiled U-shaped tubes that are distributed among the lobules in the testes - also the site of sperm production
narrow region of the glans on the male penis
compartments resulting from the septa in the testes
Sensory and motor nerves
scrotum richly supplied with ________ and ________ nerves
Corpus spongiosum
erectile tissue that surrounds the penile urethra - expands distally to form the glans of the penis
Cremaster muscle
continuous with the abdominal wall, elevates scrotum for temperature regulation
hormone that influences brain development by stimulating sexual behaviors and sexual drive
In the epididymis, begins distal to the last efferent duct and extends inferiorly along the posterior margin of the testes
Reproductive tract
consists of ducts that receive, store, and transport gametes
Seminiferous tubules
where sperm is produced and consequently the first stop in the sperm pathway
Straight tubule
single tube that connects the seminiferous tubules with the mediastinum of the testes
Smooth muscle
wall of the ductus deferens made up of this, making it able to perform peristaltic contractions like in the esophagus and intestines of the digestive tract
fluid ejaculate containing sperm and secretions of accessory glands of the male reproductive tract
long, coiled tube in the male reproductive tract, lined with simple columnar epithelium
Cremaster muscle
layer of skeletal muscle that lies deep to the dermis - contraction tenses the scrotum and pulls the testes closer to the body
monitors and adjusts the composition of fluid produced by the seminiferous tubules, recycles damaged spermatozoa, stores sperm, and facilitates maturation
External genitalia
perineal structures associated with the reproductive system
Rete testis
series of interconnected tubular passageways within the mediastinum of the testes
hormone that stimulates growth and metabolism throughout the body
Preputial glands
located in the skin of the neck - produce a waxy material known as smegma
Seminal fluid
component of ejaculate that contains mixture of glandular secretions
primary sex organ in males which produces gametes (sperm)
Ductus deferens
begins at the tail end of the epididymis and ascends into the abdominopelvic cavity through the inguinal canal as part of the spermatic cord
Bulbourethral glands
small, round paired glands located at the base of the penis that function to produce alkaline mucous that neutralizes urinary acids in the urethra and provides lubrication for the tip of the penis
Ductus deferens
fourth stop in the sperm pathway right after the epididymis and before the ejaculatory duct
Dartos muscle
layer of smooth muscle found within the dermis of the scrotum - tonic contraction causes the wrinkled appearance of the scrotum
Accessory glands and organs
secrete fluids into ducts of the reproductive system or into other excretory ducts
composed of prostatic, membranous, and penile parts
superior portion of the epididymis that receives spermatozoa via the efferent ducts of the mediastinum of the testes
area of the testes where the septa converge - supports the blood vessels, lymphatics of the testes and the ducts that collect and transport sperm out of the testes.
External urethral meatus
opening of the urethra to the outside of the body
In the epididymis, marked by several convolutions near the inferior border of the testes
Membranous urethra
seventh stop in the sperm pathway right before the penile urethra
In sperm, the activation process that must occur before a sperm can successfully fertilize an egg by becoming motile and changes its membrane permeability in the female reproductive tract
hormone that causes development of secondary sexual sex characteristics by influencing the development and maturation of non-reproductive structures
Ductus deferens
functions include transport and storage of sperm - sperm can be stored here for months
hormone that maintains accessory organs of the male reproductive tract
expanded portion of the ductus deferens
Spermatic cord
components: ductus (vas) deferens, testicular artery, pampiniform plexus of the testicular vein, ilioinguinal and genitofemoral nerves, and cremaster muscle
tubular, movable portion that consists of 3 parallel cylindrical masses of erectile tissue
Cremaster reflex
contraction occurs during sexual arousal and in response to changes in temperature
expanded distal end of the penis - enlargement of corpus spongiosum
tubular organ that contains the distal portion of the urethra
Perineal raphe
raised thickening in the scrotal surface that marks the division between the scrotum and position of the testes
Spermatic cord
composite structure that consists of layers of fascia, tough connective tissue and muscle enclosing the blood vessels, nerves, and lymphatics supplying the testes
Prostate gland
small, muscular, rounded gland that encircles the prostatic urethra as it leaves he urinary bladder
Descent of testes
process in which testes form inside body and move down with the spermatic cord
Sustentacular cells
AKA sertoli cells; large cells that are attached to the basement membrane at the tubular capsule - newly formed spermatids are embedded in within the cytoplasm of these cells
Seminal vesicles
(accessory gland) tubular glands that are coiled and folded into a compact, tapered mass
region of the penis that is attached to the pubic bone
produce physically mature sperm that are not yet capable of successful fertilization because they are not yet motile
component of ejaculate that contains protease that helps dissolve mucous secretions in the vagina, and seminalplasmin
long, coiled tube and the third stop in the sperm pathway right after the rete testis and before the ductus deferens
Tunica albuginea
dense fibrous layer that surrounds the testes - rich in collagen fibers which extend into the testes forming partitions or septa
Penile urethra
last stop in the sperm pathway right after the membranous urethra
volume of fluid released during a typical ejaculation (2-5mL); contains sperm, seminal fluid and enzymes
Sustentacular cells
function to maintain the blood testes barrier, support of spermatogenesis, support of spermiogenesis, secretion of inhibin, secretion of androgen-binding protein
Ejaculatory duct
short passageway that penetrates the wall of the prostate gland and empties into the urethra near the ejaculatory duct from the other side
process of sperm differentiation that leads to the formation of mature sperm
Corpora cavernosa
paired erectile tissue on the anterior surface of the body of the penis
in the male penis, the unpaired posterior region of erectile tissue - continuous with the corpus spongiosum in the body
hormone that stimulates spermatogenesis and promote physical and functional maturation of spermatozoa
reproductive organs - produce reproductive cells (gametes) and hormones
Tunica vaginalis
serous membrane that covers the outside of each testis and lines the scrotal cavity - also reduces friction between the opposing surfaces
in the male penis, the paired posterior regions of erectile tissue - continuous with corpora cavernosa in the body
Inguinal hernia
protrusion of a loop or portion of the visceral abdominal contents through the inguinal canal
Ejaculatory duct
fifth stop in the sperm pathway right after the ductus deferens and right before the prostatic urethra
component of ejaculate that contains 20-100million _____ per cubic mL of semen
Rete Testis
series of interconnected tubular passageways and the second stop in the sperm pathway after the seminiferous tubules and before the epididymis
process of sperm production that begins at the outmost layers of the seminiferous tubules
foreskin; fold of skin that surrounds the tip of the penis

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