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nutrition chaper2 carbohydrates


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what is the most significant polysaccharide in the diet?
starches found in what foods?
grains, legumes, and in other vegetables. some fruits contain minute amts of starch also
Cooking starches does what to them?
-improves flavor
-softens/ruptures the starch cells, making digestion easier
The US DRI's recommend that you get how much of total calories from CHO's?
45% - 65%
another name for common table sugar?
what two simple sugars make up sucrose?
glucose and fructose
another name for "milk sugar"
what common food is a form of sucrose?
what percentage of cow's milk is lactose?
what percentage of human milk is lactose?
what does milk sugar aid in the absorption of?
calcium and phosphorus
what is the main ingredient added to food made of glucose?
corn syrup
a near-synonym for glucose
the degree to which fructose is found in fruit depends on what?
the ripeness of the fruit
other than fruit, what other common food contains fructose?
what are the 3 simple sugars important to the human body?
glucose, fructose, galactose
Simple sugars are converted to_______ by enzymes and stored in the liver and muscles
what does "saccharide" mean?
(saccharum "sugar") A saccharide is a single sugar unit
what are the two types of "simple sugars"
monosaccharides and disaccharides
another name for "complex sugars"
why are CHOs called "quick energy" foods?
because the body can rapidly break them down
what are 3 practical reasons which accounts for the widespread popularity of CHO's?
-they are widely available and easily grown
-they are relatively low in cost
-they are easily stored
what do USDA surveys reveal about CHOs in the diet of Americans?
that about 50% of the total Kcals come form CHOs, and is slightly higher for children
What is the FDA's recommendation for added sugars?
that they comprise no more than 25% of the total Kcals
what do USDA surveys reveal about simple sugars in the diet of Americans?
that they comprise 20%-40% of total Kcals
what is the body's primary source of energy?
what 3 things must be accomplished by any energy system to produce energy from a basic fuel?
-change basic fuel to refined fuel
-transport refined fuel to places which need it
-burn refined fuel in specialized equipment set up at these places
3 essential life and health needs provided by CHOs?
-energy to do work
-building materials
-control agents
what needs to be present for CHOs to meet the needs of the body?
other nutrients. no nutrient works alone
another name for the process of chewing food
what's the first substance to begin chemical digestion of CHOs in the body?
salivary amylase (aka ptyalin)
what stops the action of salivary amylase?
HCL in the stomach
how much of the total CHOs might be typically broken down by salivary amylase?
what is food called after it leaves the stomach?
what does the old term "insulin-dependent diabetes" refer to?
type 1 diabetes
which type of diabetes has a strong genetic link?
type 2 diabetes
True or false? Persons with type 1 diabetes are usually overweight.
False. persons with type 1 are usually thin
Having type 1 diabetes places a person at a higher risk of developing this disorder.
Type 1 diabetes is caused by what?
an autoimmune destruction of the beta cells of the pancreas
Type 1 accounts for what percentage of all diabetics?
how does the onset and severity of type 1 diabetes compare to that of type 2?
type 1 develops more rapidly and tends to be more severe and unstable than type 2
at what age can someone develop diabetes type 1?
at any age
why was type one known as "juvenile onset diabetes"?
because the onset is so sudden in children and adolescences
what is the primary, and preferred, source of energy for the body (after digestion)?
what needs to be present for glucose to get into the cell?
according to the CDC, how many Americans have diabetes?
17 million which is 6.2%
what is the normal findings for blood glucose?
what is the major hormone controlling levels of blood glucose?
what are the functions of insulin?
-helps transport glucose into the cell via insulin receptors
-helps change glucose to glycogen and store it
-stimulates the change of glucose to fat
-inhibits breakdown of fat and protein
-promotes uptake of amino acids by skeletal muscles
-influences burning of glucose
what does glucagon do?
rapidly breaks down glycogen and, to a lesser extent, fat. it, thereby, raises blood sugar levels
what is abnormal about the metabolism of someone with uncontrolled diabetes?
-glucose cannot enter cells, causing hyperglycemia
-fat formation is decreased
-fat breakdown is increased
-fat breakdown is incomplete, therefore ketones accumulate because of excess keytone formation
-acetone (a keytone) is present in urine
-protein tissues are broken down
what are the long term complications associated with diabetes?
what is the #1 cause of new blindness in adults?
diabetic retinopathy
the #1 cause of end stage renal disease
which ethnic groups have increased rates of diabetic nephropathy?
Native Americans, African Americans, Hispanics
what % of diabetics experience neuropathy?
what parts of the body are most often affected by diabetic neuropathy?
the feet and legs
what % of diabetics develop nephropathy?
what % of diabetics are affected by retinopathy?
nearly all of the type 1 and up to 21% of type 2
what 2 criteria are used to determine if a nutrient is "essential" or "nonessential"?
-if its absence will create a specific deficiency disease


-if the body cannot produce it and must obtain it from diet

only one of the two need to be true to be considered "essential"
the 2 fatty acids known to be essential
-linoleic acid
-linolenic acid
in which foods is linoleic acid found?
polyunsaturated vegetable oils
in which foods is linolenic acid found?
primarily in milk, soybeans, and flaxseed oil
what is the DRI for linoleic and linolenic acids?
-linoleic is 17g/day for men, 12g/day for women
-linolenic is 1.6g/day for men, 1.1g/day for women
people in the US have maintained consumption of fats which comprises how much of the total Kcals?
around 34%
how much of the total Kcals of your diet should fats make up?
the name for the broad group of fats and fat-related substances is called_____.
fats are called "glycerides" because they are composed of what (2 things)
glycerol and fatty acids
what should you do to manage dislipidemia?
-reduce LDL cholesterol in diet
-increase HDL cholesterol in diet
-decrease triglycerides in diet
what is cellulitis?
diffuse inflammation of soft or connective tissues
what is the major cause of death among persons with diabetes?
cardiovascular disease
how does the rate of cardiovascular disease in diabetics compare with that of those without diabetes?
CVD is 2-4 times more prevalent in diabetics than in the general population
what are some comorbid risk factors for CVD?
diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia
a type 1 diabetic who drinks should be reminded to do what when they drink?
eat. food slows the absorption of alcohol
what effect does alcohol have on blood glucose?
alcohol lowers blood glucose levels
a type 1 diabetic who drinks should not do what? (in regards to insulin)
they should not increase the amount of insulin because the alcohol will also lower glucose levels
individuals who have fasting blood sugar that falls between 110 and 126 are referred to as having ______.
Impaired glucose tolerance or prediabetes
what are the initial sign of diabetes?
-increased thirst
-increased urination
-increased hunger
-unintentional weight loss (type 1)
-unintentional weight gain (type 2)
the behavior of a person with hypoglycemia might resemble that of someone who is ________.
hypoglycemia can lead to _______.
what lab results might you expect for a diabetic?
-glycosuria (sugar in urine)
-abnormal glucose tolerance tests
what are 3 ways glucose is normally used in the body?
-burned in cells
-changed to glycogen
-changed to fat
what are the 3 hormones used to regulate blood sugar levels?
where are the hormones which regulate blood sugar secreted?
they are secreted by the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas
what are two conditions which cause type 2 diabetes?
-insulin resistance
-insulin deficit
in which age group is there an increasing trend in type 2 diabetes?
is there a difference in prevalence of diabetes among men and women?
yes. women are more likely to have type 2 diabetes than men
what are the typical findings for type 1 and type 2 diabetes patients concering levels of insulin?
-insulin is totally absent in type 1 diabetes
-excessive insulin is usually found in type 2 diabetes, but insulin can be normal or below normal
how is diabetes insipidus related to diabetes mellitus?
only by name. diabetes insipidus is a much rarer and quite different disease caused by lack of ADH (antidiuretic hormone)
in what year was the first patient treated with injected insulin?
what is the 6th leading cause of death from disease in the US?
diabetes melletus
how does the pancreas contribute to CHO digestion?
by secreting a substance which enters the duodenum which contains pancreatic amylase
what is the "brush border" and how is it significant to digestion?
it is comprised of cells located on the microvilli of the intestinal tract which digestive enzymes attach to. these enzymes break disaccharides into monosaccharides
CHOs provide how many Kcals/g?
4 Kcals/g
what function do CHOs serve in regards to proteins and fats?
they help regulate protein and fat metabolism
in regards to glucose, how is the brain different than most of the body?
it has no stored glucose. it is more dependent on blood sugar levels for proper functioning
what is the heart's preferred food? what is it's back up food?
-its preferred food is fatty acids
-its back up food is glycogen
what can be problematic about too much fiber? (2 things)
-sudden increases can cause gas, bloating, and constipation
-excessive amounts can trap small amts of minerals and prevent absorption into GI tract
whole grains provide a "special package" of what?
-complex CHOs
-fiber in coating
-abundance of vitamins/minerals
the RDI of fiber for those 50 years old or younger is?
38g/day for men
25g/day for women
the RDI of fiber for those over 50 years old is what?
30g/day for men
21g/day for women
what function does lignin perform in digestion?
it binds with bile acids and cholesterol in intestines
is lignin water-soluble? is insoluble
what is the main source of cellulose in the diet?
stems and leaves of vegetables and the coverings of seeds and grains
is cellulose water-soluble?
no. it is insoluble
what is the name of the substance referred to as "animal starch"?
how does glycogen come to be in the body?
it is produced in the liver. practically none is found in the diet
what are the normal findings for blood glucose?
what are some conditions of the pancreas which might lead to secondary diabetes?
-any condition causing damage to the pancreas can cause diabetes
-acute viral infections
-cystic fibrosis
-alcohol abuse
-pancreatic surgery
-chronic pancreatic insufficiency
what is one of the leading causes of chronic pancreatitis?
alcohol abuse
what functions do noncellulose polysaccharides perform in digestion (4 of them)?
-absorb water and swell to larger bulk, thus slowing the emptying of the stomach
-binding gile acids in intestines (including cholesterol)
-providing bulk for normal muscle action
-providing fermentation materials on which bacteria can work
why can't humans digest dietary fiber?
because we lack the necessary enzymes

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