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fundamentals of nursing - hygiene


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The science of health and its maintanance is called ____.
The self-care by which people attend to ADL's is called_____.
Personal hygiene.
The largest organ of the body
The skin
These sweat glands are largely in the axillae and anogenital areas.
Appocrine glands
These sweat glands are of little use in thermoregulation
Appocrine glands
Another name for sweat glands
Sudoriferous glands
This type of sweat glands are the most numerous type and are important to thermoregulation
Eccrine glands
Sweat is made up of:
H2O, Na, K, Cl, glucose, urea, and lactate
Important considerations determination of type of bath for client includes:
Client's balance, ability to sit unsupported, activity tolerance, coordination, muscle strength, ROM, vision, cognitive funcitoning, and the client's preferences
What are the effects of sebum on the integument?
-Softens and lubricates skin and hair
-Thermal insulation
-Bacteriocidal action
-Prevents water loss when humidity is low
These diseases make client's more prone to infection of the feet because of reduced peripheral circulation to the feet.
Diabetes and peripheral vascular disease
Another name for athlete's foot
Tinea pedis
Keratosis caused by friction and pressure from a shoe
True or False? Clients with diabetes should soak their feet frequently to hydrate them and put lotion between their toes.

Soaking dries skin out. Furthermore, they should avoid putting lotion between toes and should avoid using perfumed lotion.
Plantar warts are caused by what? They are located where on the body?
-The virus papovavirus hominis
-On the sole of the feet
List 7 treatment considerations for clients with dry skin.
-use cleansing creams instead of soaps or detergents
-use bath oils
- use moisturizing or emollient creams
-thoroughly rinse soap and detergent from skin if used
-increase fluid intake
-humidify air with humidifier or keep a tub or sink of water full
-bathe less frequently when temp and humidity are low
When preparing a client for peri-genital care, what preparations must be made?
-provide privacy
-explain what you are going to do and why
-wash hands, don gloves
-place bath towel under hips
-position and drape client
-clean inner thighs
-assess peri-genital area for lesions, swelling or other deviations from normal appearance
another name for diaper rash
ammonia dermatitis
when should oils and lotions be applied and why?
ater a bath, not during because the oils make the tub slippery and contribute to falls
The purpose of a therapeutic bath is what?
to soothe irritated skin or to treat an area with medication added to the water
a therapeutic bath is usually taken in what?

the water is usually around what temperature?
-a tub one-third to one-half full
-around 100-115 degrees F for adults; 105 degrees F for an infant
A visible, hard deposit of plaque and dead bacteria that forms at the gum line
Red swollen gingiva
Another name for dental cavities
dental caries
another name for gum disease
periodontal disease
Advanced periodontal disease is known as_____, and is characterized by_____and______.
-pus in the gums; loose teeth
Periodontal disease is characterized by_____(4 conditions)
-receding gum lines
-formation of pockets between teeth and gums
Teeth usually first appear at what age?
5-8 months old
Putting an infant to bed with a bottle of sugar water, formula, milk, or juice might cause what?
Baby-bottle syndrome (the decay of all upper teeth and lower-posterior teeth
By what age do children usually have all 20 temporary teeth?
2 years old
How many permanent teeth are there?
By what age do most people have all of them?
-25 years old
True or false? Loss of teeth usually occurs because of dental caries.
Loss of teeth usually occur because of periodontal disease rather than dental caries.
True or false? The incidence of peiodontal disease increases with pregnancy.
True. The rise in female hormornes affects gingival tissue and increases its reaction to bacterial plaque.
Another name for the gums
An invisible, soft film that adheres to the surface of teeth
What does plaque consist of?
bacteria, saliva, remnants of epithelial cells and leukocytes
Clients at an increased risk or dry oral mucosa include:
-those with nasogastric tubes or receiving O2 because they tend to breath through the mouth
-Older adults because of decreased saliva production
-Those taking medications which cause dry mouth
-Those who've received radiation treatment because the treatment may damags saliva glands
-alcohol use
-high salt intake
What are some possible risk factors for oral problems?
-lack of knowledge
-inability to perform oral hygiene
-recent oral or jaw surgery
-inadequate nutrition
-excessive intake of refined sugar
-family history
-those with dry oral mucosa
Damage to teeth and jaw structures caused by radiation may occur how long after exposure?
years after exposure
What is stomatitis?
Inflammation of the oral mucosa
What is parotitis?
Inflammation of the parotid salivary glands
What is sordes?
Accumulation of foul matter in the mouth
What is cheilosis?
cracking of lips
What is glossitis?
Inflammation of the tongue
What is halitosis?
bad breath
conditions which indicate a nursing diagnosis of "impaired oral mucous membrane"
-coated tongue
-dry mouth
-dental caries
-oral plaque
-pain or discomfort
-lesions or ulcers
-decreased or lack of salivation
three nursing diagnoses which apply to oral hygiene
-Self-Care Deficit
-Impaired Oral Mucous Membrane
-Deficient Knowledge
why should those who wear dentures be encouraged to use them?
those who do not wear them are prone to shrinkage of the gums which results in further tooth loss.
The emergence of permanent teeth is guided by what?
deciduous teeth
abnormally placed or lost deciduous teeth can lead to ______.
misalignment of permanent teeth
True or false? Hydrogen peroxide is recommended for use in oral care.
False. H2O2 irritates healthy oral mucosa and may alter the microflora of the mouth.
Describe Fowler's postition.
semisitting position in which the head of the bed is raised at least 45 degrees. knees may be flexed or horizontal.
Describe Trendelenburg's position.
Head of bed is lowered and the foot raised in a straight incline.
Describe Semi-Fowler's position.
Head of bed raised 30 degrees.
True or false? you should hold dirty linens close to your body as a measure of proper body mechanics.
False. Hold dirty linens away from your uniform
Why would you keep the bed in a low postition?
to make it easy for the patient to get in and out of bed.
water used for a shampoo should be at what temp?
105 degrees F
the main disadvantages of dry shampoo are?
they dry the hair and the scalp
What determines the direction of blade in shaving?
The hair growth. Shave with the direction of hair growth.
At what angle should you hold the razor blade when shaving?
45 degrees in regards to the skin
Which clients usually require special hygiene of the eyes?
unconscious clients and those recovering from eye surgery or eye injuries, irritations or infections
3 effects of combing hair
-stimulates blood circulation to the scalp
-distributes hair oils and provides a sheen
-increases sense of well-being by arranging hair
a client with long hair should have hair brushed how often?
at least once per day
True or false? The shafts of curly and kinky hair have more strength than those of straight hair.
False. Straight hair is stronger than curly or kinky hair.
Many African American people have hair that is naturally curly and can become matted in this amount of time
in just 8 hours
the best type of instrument to stimulate circulation while brushing hair
a brush with stiff bristles
how often should an infant's hair be shampooed?
daily to prevent seborrhea
when cleaning the eyes, you should clean in which direction?
from the inner to outer canthus
hard contact lenses shouldn't be left in for more than?
no more than 12 to 14 hours
to remove hard contact lenses, they must be positioned where?
directly over cornea
Another name for earwax
True or False? A cotton-tipped applicator should be used to remove cerumen.
False. Use no objects to remove cerumen. It can be loosed by moving the auricle up and back or by irrigation.
when talking about a mattress, what are "lugs"
handles on the sides of the mattress
True or False? You should not shake soiled linen in the air.
True. Shaking can disseminate microorganisms.
What are bed cradles used for?
To keep the top bedclothes off the feet, legs, and even abdomen of the client.
What are the 5 major functions of the skin?
-protect the underlying tissue
-sebum secretion
-regulate temperature
-transmit sensations
-vitamin D production and absorption
when do infants usually develop nails?
nails are usually present at birth
how often might a client be bathed who has very dry skin?
bathing is limited to once or twice per week for those with very dry skin because bathing dries the skin out more.
a bath which uses a quick-drying solution containing a disinfectant, a cleaning agent, and a softening agent which dries quickly and doesn't require drying
a "towel bath"
washclothes in a bag with a nonrinsable claner and water which is warmed in microwave and used to give this type of bath
a "bag bath"
vigorous rubbing or a warm bath have this effect on a person
stimulation of circulation
rub the skin this way to fascilitate venous return in extremities
long smooth strokes from distal to proximal end of limb
this is used instead of soap for those allergic to soap

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