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bacteriology II


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K antigen
plysaccharides (capsules)
H antigens
protien (flagella)
O antigen
Lipopolysaccarides (somatic and endotoxins)
1. gram negative RODS
2. aerobic or facultatively anaerobic
3. WHEN motile, they are peritrichous(covered with flagella)
5. Indophenol oxidase negative
6. some have capsules
7.Most pathogens produce adhesions, wide variety of exotoxins
8. Antigens- H,O,and K
9. Lab test for: dye and biles salt resistance... and
differentiate with lactose fermentation.
Limulus test
Amebocytes from the horseshoe crab clot in the presence of endotoxins...Used for gram negative bacteria....very sensitive, will detect nanograms
Esherichia coli
1. Facultative
2. non spore forming
3. lactose-fermenting
4. gram negative rod
Where do you usually find E. coli
colon of man and many other animals, indicator organism for pollution
What diseases are caused by E.choli?
1. Diarrhea syndrome
-enterotoxigenic strains
-infant diarrhea
-traveler's diarrhea
2. Neonatal meningitis
3. Nosocomial infections
-septic shock
-pulmonary infections
5. other pyogenic effects
-gall bladder infections
What type of antigens does E. choli have?
160 O antigens
93 K antigens
43 H antigens
enteropathogenic e. coli
-specific O serotype,
-causes sporadic cases in babies and children
-fecal sample
-polyverent antisera for known EPEC types
-adhesion to cell cultures
-DNA-based assays for virulence factors
enterotoxigenic E. Coli-
1. developing country and travellers diarrhea
2.Water and sewage contaminater
3.LAB- fecal samples, test for toxin or gene probe for LT and ST genes.
1. Serotype 0157 is the important
2. contaminates food and unpasturized milk products
3. May cause hemolyti-uremic syndrome
Enteroinvasive E.coli-
1.Food borne diarrhea agent
2.Isolate in fecal material
3. test for EIEC in tissue culture or nucleic-acid based assys
Enteroaggregative E.coli
1.causes diarrhea
2.tissue cell cultres assays for aggregates or diffuse adherence
Hemorhaic Uremic Syndrome- mostly caused by EHEC 0157
1. in Enterobacteriaceae
3. distiguished by DNase, lipase and gelatinase reisistance to colistin and cephaliathin
4. Found in water, soil, plants and animals
5. can cause -
pulomonary issues
6. antibotic resistant
1. in Enterobacteriaceae
2.Gram negative rod
4. facultative anaerobe
5. bile tolerant
6. likes alkaline pH
7. highly motile
8. unpleasant odor
9. causes UTI, wound infection, septicemia, and pneumonia in immune comprimised
10. lactose non-fermentor
P. mirabilis
1. Proteus gram negative rod
2. distingiushed between P.vulgaris because it is indole negative
3.causes UTI, pneumonia, wound infections
P. Vulgaris
1.Proteus gram negative rod
2.Indole positive
3. causes UTI, pneumonia in IComp.pts., wound infections, septacemia
1. gram negative rod, pleomorphic, non-mobile
2.capsule responsible for invasiveness, capsule causes moist mucoid sputum
3.lactose fermentors
4.secondary to other diseases
5. scarring left from pneumonial infections
1. almost bacteria "obligate intracellular parasite
2.Non-motile Gram negative Coccobacillary
3.Occurs in pairs or irregular mass
4. Stains with Giemsa and Macchiavello stain
5. Has phospolipase that breaks down cell membranes
6. possess endotoxin and hemolysis
7. Can not make any nucleotide cofactors(NAD,CoA) also need exogenous source for ATP, ect...
8.disease starts in periphery first: rash, headache, fever
9. transmitted by arhropods
10. cause lysis of endothelial cells, hemorage and thrombosis
11.Immunity with recovery
12.Test for with antigen typing, and Weil-Felix reaction
Rocky mountain spotted fever
Ricketsia spotted fever group
1.most frequently reported ricketsia in US
2. tick must be on for a few hours
3. Produces intra-nuclear adn intracytoplasmic inclusions
4. Weil-Felix positive for OX19 and OX2
5. Flu symptoms, peripherial rash first, delirium, lethargy, can be confuse with measles or encephelitis
6.Death occurs in second week
Fievre boutonneuse
Rickettsia conorii-
mild for of RMSF with lesions called ESCHARs
Rickettsial pox
rickettsia akari-
uran apartment disease, by house mice, looks like chicken pox,
No OX reaction
Reiter's syndrome
urethritis, conjunctivitis, arthritis with a infection with Chlamydia trachomatis D-K
1. cell wall
2. grow slower,
3. have long chain fatty acid
4. neither gram - or +
5. Bacteriophage
6. test with acid fast test
7. Include- TB!!
Mycobacterium tuberculosis
1. Slow growing 24 hr double
2. true branching rods
3. acid fast
4. grown on egg protien
5. Virulence factors-
a. wax D
b. trehalose dimycolate- inhibits leukocyte migration
c. 60% of cell is fatty acid
d.highly resistent
6. Aerosol transmission, obligate aerob
7.Runyon classification-
colony color no yellow pigment, hard to suspend in water, affected by light
Niacin positive.
Atypical mycobacterium- mycobacterium other than TB
Runyon classification- based on pigment color and growth rate.
Runyon classification
determined by growth rate and pigment
1. Group I- photochromogens (need light to produce pigments)
2. Scotochromogens (do not need light)
3. Non-photochromes-
4. Rapid growers
1. no pigment in dark, yellow in light, mucoid easy to suspend in water
2. slow growth
3. Causes disease similar to TB
4. problem with sever drug resistance
Group II Runyen
1. Dark yellow in dark or light, easy to suspend in water
2. slow growth, no growth at 45 C
3.Causes skin abscesses and scrofula
4. It causes lymph node infection and abscesses in the neck (however, TB can too)
Caseous necrosis
White cell capsule that the TB begins to liquify upon opportunity
Battey Bacillus Group III-
1. Creamy buff color in both light and dark
2.Slow growth
3. Causes lung disease
indistinguishable from TB
4. Main is M. avium-intracellulare
Rapid Growers
Group IV
1. varied in color, no light effect
2. 3-7 days multiple temps
3. in animals, birds and reptiles, water and soil
4. usually in skin abscess, rate pulomonary disease
Hansens's disease
Mycobacterium leprae (Leprosy)
1. 2 million cases worldwide
2. can not be grown in lab (except mouse foot pad)
3. doubling time, upto 12 days
4. low infectivity, related to histocompatibility group
5. lack of immune response
6. two types, tuberculoid and lepromatous, lepromatous leprosy is the disfiguring type
7. Lepromin test,,
8. Treatable
1. obligate anaerobes, make up majority of normal gut flora
2. Promenit cause of Halitosis and in female genital tract
3. opportunistic pathogens
4. virulence factor---has antiphagocytic ez, proteolytic and collagenic ez,
5.Endotoxin- LPS lacking KDO and Heptose, no usual endotoxin response
6. cause septacemia and metastatic lesions, aspiraton pneuonia and necrotic disease
Vincent's disease
necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis, caused by Fusobacterium
Family Bacteroidacaea all gram negative anaerobes with tapered rods that are copious fermenters,, normal flora of gut and oropharynx.
Prevotella melaninogenica
use to be in bacteroides
normal flora of oropharynx and genitourinary tract. most infections above the diaphram
Fusobacterium nucleatum
a bacteroidaceae, all gram negative anaerobes with tapered rods..
Fermenters,,,,cause a big stink
Bartonella group
1. bacilliformis- Carrion's disease
2. Quintana- trench fever
3. Henselae- Cat-scratch fever
4. Clarridgeiae- endocarditis, cat-scratch disease (rare)
5. Elizabethae- endocarditis (rare)
Carrion's disease
systemic disease causing baruga(blood blister like lesion). hemolytic anemia caused by parasitization of RBC. Only in Andes at 1-3 thousand feet
Cat Scratch Fever
includes baronella henselae,afipia felis and bartonella quintana
Rat bite fever
streptobacillus moniliformis, and spirilum minor
Calymmatobacterium granulomatis
Donaovania- gram negative coccobacilli, grow in yolk sac...causes inguinal granuloma. Stain to form Donovain bodies,,,high rate of penile carcinoma....flesh eating!!!!
What two main members of Enterobacteriaceae are not normal inhabitants of the human gut, until after infection?
salmonella and shigella
The Kauffman-white classification of salmonella uses what as distingushing factors?
Identification of O and H antigens
Give a basic discription of Salmonella....
1.Gram Negative
2.Very motile
4.Urease neg
5.Lactose neg
6.Frank pathogen
Where are salmonella found?
all kinds of animals, and food animals
What toxins are of concern with Salmonella?
3.Cell wall associated enterotoxin
What makes Salmonella typhi different than the rest of the salmonella?
it is non-capsulated
What diseases are associated with Salmonella?
2.Typhoid Fever
5.osteomylitis, 6.meningitis, 7.endocarditis, 8.cholecystitis
9.Intestinal hemorrhage
What are the symptoms associated with Typhoid fever?
1. malaise
2. anorexia
3. headache
4. fever
5. abd tenderness
6. "rose spots" on trunk
7. Delirium
10% fatal if untreated
How do you diagnose typhoid fever?
culture from rose spots, urine or feces
Use a Widal reaction agianst O and H antigens
What four shigellas produce bacillary dysentery?
1. dysenteriae
2. flexneri (most US cases)
3. boydii
4. sonnei
Why is shigella such an issue in institutional areas?
due to the low dose required for infection. Can be as little as 200 organisms
How does shigatoxin work?
it is an A-B exotoxin that inactivates the 60s mammalian ribosomal subunit, by cleaving the 18s ribosomal RNA. This stops protien production and cell death
How do you get shigella?
4 F's
fingers, food, flies, feces
If a bacteria was described as a non-lactose fermenter, but associated with dairy products, what would it be?
Yersinia enterocolitica

Ironic, huh?
If a bacteria was described as Halophilic with polar flagella, what would it be?
Vibrio cholerae
heliobactor pylori, give a general discription..
spiral shaped gram negative, oxidase positive, need silver stain to identify its 4 sheathed flagella
vibrio cholerae, give a general discription of..
Moile curved uniflagellar rod, it is a facultative aerobic to anaerobic oxidase positive bacteria, which tolerates alkaline pH and is halophilic
vibrio parahaemolyticus is associated with what type of infection?
it is associated with seafood infections of the diarrhea and flu symptons.
Describe campylobacters?
1. curved gram negative rods
2. Motile w/single polar flagella
3. Oxidase and catalase positive
4. DO NOT ferment carbohydrates
5. Can be isolated on enriched media with Campy Packs
campylobacter jejuni is associated with what two diseases?
1. Travelers disease, diarrhea
2. 1/1000 develope Guillain-Barre Syndrome (peri. MS)
Campylobacter jejuni has symptoms?
1. Children, self limiting diarrhea
2. bacteremia( bacteria in blood) older men
3. Prenatal- resolution with delivery or stillbirth
4. Neonatal- usually death
How does Helicobacter pylori cause stomach ulcers?
It contains adhesin and mucinases that break down the mucous of the stomach lining, they then burrow in and effectivly change the pH by secretion of NH4+. Also releases inflamatory effector molecules which affects IL-8 levels which is a chemoattractant.
What is special about pseudomonadales use of glucose?
it oxidises glucose, but does not ferment
Give a overall discription of psuedomonadales...
1. non-fermentors
2. Grow on multimedia carbon source
3. Aerobic can use nitrate anaerobically
4. Polar monotrihous rod
5. strong oxidase positive
6. produce sidophores to bind iron, which is needed for elastase and exotoxin A.
What are the virulence factors for pseudomonas aeruginosa?
1. slime
2. exotoxin A and S
3. Proteases
4. endotoxin
5. elastase
6. hemolysin
7. leukocidins
8. alginate
9. Phospholipase C
10 Rhamnolipid
Virulence factor found in Pseudo. Aeruginosa, that has hemolytic activities and inhibits pulmonary ciliary activity
What function does Phosphlipase C have as a virulence factor in Pseudo. Aeruginosa?
Phospholipase C mediates tissue damage by stimulation fo inflamatory response.
EZ virulence factor that breaks down elastin containing tissues, such as arterioles and vessels.
Pseudomonas aeruginonsa's virulence factor "cytotoxin", works by what method?
It is cytolytic for eukaryotic membranes, causing rupture or inactivation of receptors.
Normal diseases caused by pseudomonas aeruginosa are?
1. UTI---
2. Swimmers ear---otitis media
3. Corneal infections
4. Nosocomeal infections
What infection is associated with helicopter crews?
Burkholderia pseudomallei---
very bad bug,,, kills most
King's A and B media are used for what?
Enhances pigment of P. aeruginosa colony growth.
(Pasturela)Francisella tularensis is caused by what method of infection?
highly infectious, less than 100 cells, can be contracted through direct contact, aerosol, contaminated water, and insect vectors...Rabitt fever
What bacteria has a special charactoristic of being stain at both ends when exposed to gram stain?
Brucellosis deals with what food products?
mainly with unpasturized milk products,,, can be contracted from placenta, milk, semen...
yersinai pestis (pasteurella)
1.The Plague-
a. Black plague
b. Sylvatic plague
2. Rats and fleas associated with them
3. types of infection are
a. bubonic- lymphnodal infection with localized hemorrage (black spots)
b. pneumonic- person to person aerosol
c. cutaneous
What is the virulence factor for yersinai pestis?
1.The plague has V and W antigens
2.endotoxin and murine toxin
3. coagulase
4. fibrinolysin
5. pesticin I
6. fracton 1 envelope antigen
What types of pathology does yersinai pestis cause?
1. necrosis
2. infarctive
3. hemorrhagia
4. edema
5. toxemia
6. buboes
100% fatal if untreated, envolvement of almost all organs
Name the five main diseases caused by Spirochaetaceae and their corosponding species names..
1.Syphilis-treponema pallidum
2.Yaws- treponema pallidum(pertenue)
3. Pinta- T. carateum
4. Relapsing fever- Borrelia recurrentis
5. Lyme disease- Borrelia burdorferi
How are spirochetes like and unlike bacteria?
1. Divide by transverse fission
2. similar replication time
(4-30 hrs)
3. Single cell
4.Contain muramic acid in cell wall

1.Corkscrew shape
2. Axial filiments for motility, chemically different from flagella
3.Are enveloped by unit membrane
Describe the primary phase for treponema pallidum?
Primary syphilis-
1.induration and hard chancre
2. regional buboes
3. spontaneous healing 10-40 days
4. if infectious, serology +
Describe the secondary phase of treponema pallidum?
Secondary syphilis:
1. not all primary go to secondary
2. 2 weeks to 6 months after healing of chancre developement of lesions in/on:
a. skin rash (spirochete lesions)
b. bone
c. joints
d. eyes
e. CNS
Describe the tertiary phase of treponema pallidum?
Tertiary syphilis
1. gummas(gummy lesions), systemic
2.tabes dorsalis(posterior column degeneration of nerve fibers)
3.serology is mixed
What two organism do we now know cross the placenta?
1. listeria
2. treponema (syphillis)

test for increase IgM levels
What does STS stand for?
Serologic Tests for Syphilis-
1. first was the Wasserman
2. Nontreponemal antigen tests:
a. flocculation
b. complement fixation
c. reagin nonspecific antibody
3. Treponemal antigen tests
a. T. pallidum Reiter's stain
b. T. pallidum immobilization by complement fixation
c. Fluorescent trep. Anitbody absorbtion
Breifly describe Leptospirosis ?
1. It is caused by exposure to infected wild or domestic animals or their waste products.
2. can be grown on artificial media
3. Immune to specific serotype after exposure/attach....lots of serotypes
4. Causes:
a. fever
b. chills
c. conjuctivitis
e. aseptic meningitis
Can test blood culture for agglutination with leptospirae.
Where does borrelia recurrentis come from and what does it cause?
1. Europe, Africa, and Asia
2. from flea or tick bites
3. recurrent fever that changes antigenicity with each episode.
Describe the some basic knowledge about Rickettsia prowazekii.
1. Epidemic Typhus
2. Clinical:
a.5-23 day incubation period
b. violent headaches
c. high fever w/chills
d. weakness and malagia
e. conjunctavitis
f. rash, starts on trunk then to extrem. NO LESIONS ON SOLES OR PALMS
h. vascular collapse,,death
3. Weil-felix reaction positive for OX-19
What three diseases are part of the typhus group of rickettsia?
1. epidemic(rickettsia prowazekii
2. Endemic(Brill-Zinsser disease)
3. Endemic Murine Typhus-(rickettsia typhi)D
What is Brill-Zinsser disease?
1. Type of R. Typhus that is latent from 4-50 years post infection.
2. Weil-Felix test are negative
3. rashes are spuradic
Endemic Murine Typhus compares to epidemic typhus, how?
1. less sever
2. from rat fleas instead of lice
1. OX-19 reaction positive
2. Immunity to one protects from both
Rickettsia tsutsugamushi is trans. by what vector, where from.
Scrub typhus, found in SE Asia and transmitted by chiggers or mites. Similar to epidemic typhus, but with centralized lesion or ESCHAR.
What are some main distigushing factors for Serratia?
1. slow lactose fermenter
2. Hydrolzyes DNA>>>
Most common cause for UTI is:
E. choli

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