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the (inferior/superior) _______ cortex may be particularly involved in spatial selective attention. a lesion here may result in _________.
inferior parietal cortex; hemineglect
the _______ cortex may be particularly important in response selection, sustained attention, control, switching and searching
frontal cortex
this area of the frontal region may be particularly involved in response initiation and inhibition
orbital frontal region
the ____ aspect of the frontal lobe (specifically, the para____ _______ cortex) may be particularly involved in intention to respond, consistency of responding, focused attention
medial frontal lobe; paralimbic cingulate cortex
the _________ frontal cortex may be particularly involved in sequencing, persistence, switching, and focus
dorsolateral frontal cortex
the _____ _______ helps to establish the salience/priority of incoming stimuli
limbic system
subcortically, sensory input is relayed through the _______; the ______ ________ helps to select motor responses and to select/coordinate _______ information
thalamus, caudate nucleus, sensory
the ______ system regulates arousal and activation
midbrain (reticular activing system)
inferiorly and posteriorly, the _______ may also be implicated in attentional disorders
name the 3 factors in Pibram & McGuinness's model of attention:
arousal, activation, effort
Mesulam's "bottom up" model of attention modulation involves the ______
ARAS-- ascending reticular activation system
Mesulam's "bottom up" model of attention modulation has (specific/global) influence on attention, (with/without) selectivity for particular sensory & cognitive domains.
global, without
Mesulam's "bottom up" model of attention modulation involves arousal and the passage of ____ information through the _____ to the cortex.
sensory, thalamus
Mesulam's "bottom up" model of attention modulation includes the r____________ (10 syllables) pathway
reticulothalamocortical; recall that this pathway involves the reticular formation, thalamus, and cortex
Mesulam's "top down" model of attention modulation involves the _____ lobe, _____ system, and the _____ cortex (in which a lesion can lead to hemi-preference)
parietal, limbic, prefrontal
Mesulam's "top down" model of attention modulation includes regulation of our experiences of m______ (esp. the limbic system), s______, v____, and c_____
motivation, significance, volition, context
the ________ cortex and the posterior ______ cortex are involved in nearly all attentional tasks regardless of type
prefrontal, posterior parietal
involved with "bottom up" and "top down" regulation of attention, there are systems that modulate attention by ____ or _____, e.g. processing of sounds, colors, tactile stimuli, faces, memories etc.
domain, modality
in Posner & Peterson's model of attention, the 3 major functions are _____ing to stimuli (involutary), ______ing signals for focal processing (vol.), and maintaining a ______/______ state
orienting, detecting, vigilant/alert
in Posner & Peterson's model of attention, the posterior attention system involves _____ing and awareness of the environment. the dorsal ____ pathway and primary cortical connections to the _____ lobe are involved.
orienting, visual, parietal
in Posner & Peterson's model of attention, the anterior attention system involves _____ detection, and regions including the anterior ______ gyrus and the supplementary _____ cortex.
signal, cingulate, motor
engaging with stimuli involves the _____ of the thalamus
disengaging with stimuli involves the posterior ___ region of the cortex
shifting the focus of one's attention involves the superior c________
Mirsky's model of attention: factor analysis of NP data yielded five factors. The first factor involves ______, or the ability to concentrate attn. resources & screen out distractors. this ability is thought to involve the superior ____ and inferior
focus, temporal, parietal
Mirsky's model of attention: factor analysis of NP data yielded five factors. The second factor involves ______ing, or staying on task with vigilance, maintaining attn. over time. this involves the rostral _______.
Mirsky's model of attention: factor analysis of NP data yielded five factors. The third factor involves ______ing, or changing focus b/w aspects of a stimulus flexibly. this involves the _______ cortex and ______association areas
shifting, prefrontal cortex, frontal association areas
Mirsky's model of attention: factor analysis of NP data yielded five factors. The fourth factor involves ______ing, or holding info in mind briefly while performing a mental operation on it (like the common defintion of working memory). this function was
encoding, hippocampus, amygdala
Mirsky's model of attention: factor analysis of NP data yielded five factors. The fifth factor involves _______,the quality of maintaining reliable attentional effort. this involves the midline _______ and _________ structures.
thalamic, brainstem
maintaining mental set in the face of distractors describes _____ attention, while processing two+ sets of info. at once refers to ______ attention
selective attention, divided attention
Cohen Malloy & Jenkins' model of attention: 1st of 4 factors is "sensory selective attention". this involves selecting sensory input for additional _______ and ______ing.
focus and processing
Cohen Malloy & Jenkins' model of attention: 2nd of 4 factors is "attentional capacity and focus". this refers to _____ed attention and is influenced by _______ factors and _______ factors
focused; "energetic factors" such as arousal, motivation and effort; "structural facotrs" e.g. memory, proc. speed, cog. ability
Cohen Malloy & Jenkins' model of attention: 3rd of 4 factors involves _______ attention which is variable within each person and is depends on task duration, reinforcement, and target:distractor ratio.
Cohen Malloy & Jenkins' model of attention: 4th of 4 factors is ________ selection and c______. this process facilitates action, is controlled and effortful, and is strongly associated with a number of _______ f________s
response control; executive functions
two methodological issues in assessing attention are the fact that attention is not u_______, and the fact that many tests load on _______ d______s. attentional capacity is usually assessed by comparing performance across tasks that load on different ___
unitary; multiple (or different) domains; cognitive
many test factors should be considered when examining attention. for example, what are the s_____ characteristics of the task? energy may be influenced by t____ factors. in terms of motivation, consider the task's r______e or its r_____ value.
spatial characteristics; temporal factors; relevance or reward value
other relevant test factors in assessing attention included the degree to which it draws on _____, _____ functioning, and ________ speed.
memory, executive functioning, processing speed
individual factors that may influence attention assessment include level of e______, e____, m______, and general c_____ ability, as well as the person's m_____ state
energy, effort, motivation, cognitive ability, mood state
anterior lesions/dysfunction may affect g_____- d_______ activity, while posterior lesions/dysfunction may affect a______ of the e________.
goal-directedness; awareness of the environment
impairment in attention ranks as the (_nd/__rd) most common form of cognitive impairment.
this was phrased in a misleading way. it is THE most common.
disorders of attention may be due to many factors. they may be due to factors that are f_____/g____ , m______, or e______, among others.
familial/genetic, metabolic, environmental
1st degree relatives of individuals with schizophrenia are disproportionately found to have deficits in _______ _______.
sustained attention
Mirsky found that (visual/auditory) CPTs are more sensitive than (auditory/visual) CPTs in assessing dysfunction in individuals with sz, absence epilepsy and juvenile myoclonic epilepsy
auditory CPTs more sensitive than visual CPTs
metabolic disorders that affect attention include u_____ from end-stage ______ failure
uremia, kidney
Metabolic d/o's and attention: early treated P___ may lead a pt. to receive an ADHD dx due to problems in attn., impulsivity, distractibility, and impersistence.
environmental factors that may negatively affect attentional capacity include lack of early _____; poverty-associated ______; exposure to ____; prenatal exposure to _____, and/or pregnancy/birth complications
intellectual stimulation; malnutrition; lead; alcohol
In addition to TBI, tumors, and infections, disorders of s______ and b_____ may negatively affect attentional capacity. S_____ a_____ may lead to poor attention/concentration in adults, and ________ in children. Cognitive difficulties may result not only
sleep, breathing, hyperactivity, sleepiness, hypoxemia
One form of attentional disorder is the acute c________ state. This involves an abrupt change in ______ status.
confusional; mental
Acute confusional states may be caused by t______ or m________ disorders, environmental stressors, or m_____ brain disease, e.g. meningitis, encephalitis.
toxic, metabolic, multifocal
TBI in the acute phase involves 3 primary features. The first is disturbance of v_________ and w_______ m___________, as well as distractibility.
vigilance, working memory
The second feature in the acute phase of TBI is the inability to maintain a _____ of ________.
stream of thought
The third feature in the acute phase of TBI is the inability to carry out _____-_________ m___________.
goal-directed movement
Numerous factors may complicate assessment with pts who have had a severe TBI. This include not only inattention with poor m______ c____, c______, and v_______, but also distractibility and possible disorientation.
mental control, concentration, vigilance
Other cognitive problems that may complicate assessment in TBI include loss of m_____, the possible presence of h________, and abnormal ________ levels.
memory (motivation could also be appropriate here), hallucinations, arousal
N_______ syndromes are disorders of s______ attention which generally result from inferior or posterior _______ cortex lesions.
Neglect, spatial, parietal
Two components of spatial attention are ______-_____, or using visual-spatial information to facilitate body movements, and ________. The latter involves mental representation, planning strategies, and willfully shifting from a target.
sensory-motor, cognitive
In what domain(s) do/does may the neglect phenomenon occur?
often visual, but can also involve auditory, somatosensory, or olfactory stimuli.
Barkley has defined ADD/ADHD as a disorder of ______ _______, behavioral _______, and e_______ ____________.
sustained attention, inhibition, executive functions
ADD/ADHD is largely a ______ diagnosis. While measures are generally _______, they are not as ______ as would be ideal. ADD/ADHD measures discriminate pts. from _____ more successfully than from individuals with other _______, such as learning disorders.
behavioral, sensitive, specific, "normals", diagnoses
Regions that have been implicated in ADD/ADHD include fronto-_________ pathways and the cerebellum. Compromise in the integrity of the _____ _____ lobe may additionally be present in inattentive ADD.
subcortical, right parietal

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