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Wilhem Wundt opened the first psychology research laboratory and in doing so....
a. explored the nature of religious beliefs
**b. established psychology as a separate science**
c. identified mental disorders and abnormal behavior
d. mapped damaged areas of the human brain
Your psychology professor says that we are biological creatures and are heavily influenced by our genes. You are not sure that you agree with her, believing that we are who we are because of our environment and what we learn. You and your psychology prof
**a. describing the parts of the nature-nurture issue.**
b. expressing views that Wundt studied.
c. demonstrating the interactive dualism debate.
d. describing the questions that Aristotle wrote about.
The founder of psychoanalysis was __________, and the founder of humanistic psychology was _________.
a. B.F. Skinner; Carl Rogers
b. Carl Rogers: Wilhem Wundt
c. Wilhem Wundt; Sigmund Freud
**d. Sigmund Freud; Carl Rogers**
The cognitive perspective of psychology focuses on
**a. the important role of mental processes in how people process information, develop language, solve problems, and think.**
b. how overt behavior is acquired and modified by environmental influences.
c. the diversity of human behavior in different cultural settings and countries.
d. the motivation of people to grow psychologically, the influence of interpersonal relationships on a person's self-concept, and the importance of choice and self-direction in striving to reach one's potential.
Which of the following is a characteristic of individualistic cultures?
**a. A person's identity is closely tied to the identity of a larger group, such as a family or work group.**
b. The needs and goals of the group are valued over the needs and goals of the individual.
c. They are more commonly found in Asia and South America than in North America and Europe.
d. The importance of self-reliance and individual achievement are emphasized.
The Hockenbury textbook tells us that scientists use the _____________ to achieve psychology's four basic goals.
**a. scientific method**
b. antisurgery method
c. vegetarian subsidies
d. health department
We call the rational method of evaluating evidence while trying to minimize the influence of preconceptions and biases
a. naturalistic research.
b. experimental method.
**c. critical thinking.**
d. case studies.
The correlational research method seeks to
a. establish a cause-and-effect relation.
b. establish ethical guidelines.
**c. examine how strongly two variables are related to one another**
d. a, b, and c.
In an experiment, the independent variable is the variable that is
a. unknown.
b. used as a substitute for the dependent variable in the control group.
**c. deliberately manipulated by the researcher.**
d. not used unless the control group and experimental groups are randomly selected.
The brain stem is made up of the _____________ and the _______________.
a. forebrain; midbrain
b. cerebellum; medulla
c. reticular formation; pons
**d. midbrain; hindbrain**
The _____________ is a group of forebrain structures forming a border around the brain stem which are involved in emotion, motivation, learning and memory.
a. primary motor cortex
**b. limbic system.**
c. cerebral cortex
d. frontal cortex
Cortical localization refers to the idea that:
**a. specific areas of the cerebral cortex are associated with specific behaviors or psychological processes.**
b. specific behaviors or psychological processes can shift from damaged brain areas to undamaged areas.
c. brain organization is fundamentally different for left-handed versus right-handed people.
d. the number of wrinkles, folds, and grooves on the surface of the brain corresponds to the intelligence level of a particular species.
The branch of psychology that is focused on understanding the internal physical events and processes that correspond with our experiences and behavior is called
**a. biological psychology.**
b. clinical psychology.
c. cognitive physiology.
d. psychopharmacology.
__________________ have three components: a cell body, dendrites, and an axon.
a. Neurotransmitters
b. Glial cells
c. Synaptic
**d. Neurons **
Messages are gathered by the dendrites to the cell body and then transmitted along the axon in the form of a brief electrical impulse called
a. a communication impulse.
b. a nerve reaction.
**c. an action potential.**
d. a reflexive impulse.
The space between neurons across which chemical messages pass is called the
a. chemical receptor site.
**b. synaptic gap.**
c. axon-dendrite gap.
d. neurotransmitter.
Which gland might be referred to as the "master gland" because of its role in regulating the production of hormones in other endocrine glands?
a. the hypothalamus
b. the testes
c. the thyroid gland
**d. the pituitary gland **
______________ is a process by which a form of physical energy is converted into a signal that can be processed by the nervous system.
a. Sensation
**b. Transduction**
c. Perception
d. Selective attention
_______________ processing emphasizes the importance of the raw sensory data in detecting perception, whereas ________________ processing emphasizes the importance of the observer's cognitive processes in arriving at meaningful perceptions.
a. Top-down; bottom-up
**b. Bottom-up; top down**
c. Figure-ground; top down
d. Visual discrimination; sensory reorganization
____________ refers to the perceptual principle that states that we automatically separate the elements of a perception into the feature that clearly stands out and its less distinct background.
a. Perceptual constancy
b. Equilibrium
**c. Figure and ground**
d. Middle ear
The ability to perceive the distance of an object as well as the three-dimensional characteristics of an object is called
**a. depth perception.**
b. b. perceptional grouping.
c. c. top-down processing.
d. d. sensory receptor.
Circadian rhythms are not only responsible for when you go to sleep and when you wake but they also affect
a. stress from the day.
**b. your mental alertness.**
c. your set-point.
d. perception of pain.
Divided into four stages, this type of sleep, known as ________________, is also called quiet sleep.
**a. NREM sleep**
b. REM sleep
c. alpha-induced sleep
d. electroencephalograph sleep
One interesting theory regarding hypnosis regards the hypnotic effect as resulting from the splitting of consciousness into two simultaneous streams of mental activity, only one of which the participant is aware. This theory is called
a. posthypnotic effect.
**b. neodissociation theory.**
c. dream control.
d. hypermnesia.
You have been asked to serve drinks at your friend's wedding. He asks you to make sure that no one drinks too much liquor, so you try to keep track of how much each guest is drinking. In order to make sure that no one drinks too much, you need to know ho
a. one ounce of 80-proof whiskey
b. four ounces of wine
c. a twelve-ounce can of beer
**d. one ounce of whiskey, four ounces of wine, and twelve ounces of beer all contain the same amount of alcohol.**

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