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Jewish History final


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"Church and Synagogue"
388: "triumph of church" and conversion of Jews(depicted in blindfold). 
Christian conquest of Grenada.  All Jews expelled from Spain unless they convert.  Completion of the reconquista of Spain.  Grenada was last Muslim prinicipality in Iberian peninsula.

Hebrew Poetry in medieval Spain

990?  Poets consciously synthesized dominant Arabic culture with Jewish religious and literary traditions..   Development of secular Hebrew poetry.  Poets became soical figures, patronized by court jews.  Poets social factor, s

1147. When the Almohads came and replaced the Almoravides in Andalusia, they completely abolished protection given by Muslim rulers and forced everyone to profess to Islam, forcing the Jews out of the area and into Christian territory.

11th century. Medieval Hebrew name for Germany; Ashkenazim are Jews originating from Europe, mostly from Yiddish speaking countries.

Black Death.
1348.  Black death kills between a third to one half of the European population.  Significane: Worst wave of persecuations in medieval Europe were in the wake of the plague.
Blood libel
13th century.  Blood libel accusations against Jews.  Case in which it was claimed that Jews use the blood of a murdered Christian for preparing the unleavened bread for Passover.  Popes, scholars unable to condemn these rumors.  150 b
Cairo Geniza
882 (earliest document). In the Ben Ezra Syagogue in Fostat, the genizah was uncovered.  Many old manuscripts were found in the geniza.  These documents offered a deatailed picture of the spiritual and material civilization of medieval Jewry. &n
Began around 650, position based on the notion of succesor to Muhamma's political authority.  Relevance to Jews: In areas that were previously Persian and Byzantine controlled areas, there was greater religious freedom for Jews.
Jew who converted to Christianity to Christianity in Spain or Portugal.  Subject to harassment from Jews and Christians.
711-1492 (Period of Reconquista) in which Jews, Muslims, and Catholics all lived in relative areas of Spain.  Refers to the cultural ideas between the three groups, and ideas of religious tolerance.
10th century, new centers of Jewis learning ermerged in Cordoba.  Birthplace of Maimonides.  Patronage of Jewish arts and sciences attracted many Jews to Cordoba.
1095: Pope Urban II calls the French knights to a Crusade to "liberate" Jerusalem and the Holy Land from Muslim rule.  Prior to Muslim crusade, destruction of major Jewish communities in the Rhineland and Southern Germany: Jews were either
1650? Agreement between Muhammad and the Jews of KhaybarDhimma is the policy of treatment toward the Jews and Christians living in Islamic countries. Dhimmi=Jew, Christian, etc.  Jews now "tolerated" and "protected" under certain
Emporer Constantine
312: Becomes Christian.  Important in establishing Christianities dominance in the Roman Empire
Fourth Lateran council
1215: makes the wearing of a distinguished badge obligatory for the Jews.  Part of a larger change in Christian society.
Commentaries, discussions and rulings concerning the Mishnah,; Mishnah and Gemara together in talmud
Gershom ben Jehuda
1028.  Inovations: Prohibition of polygamy, unilaterl divorce without wife's consent, and unauthroized reading of private letters.
Granada; events of 1066
Joseph Be Samuel ha-Nagid is killed during a revolt which destorys the city's Jewish community. Muslim mob stormed the royal palace in Granada.
Guide of the Perplexed
1190.  Written in Arabi.  Directed to a a small readership of scholors.  Applying the insights of the Aristelian philosophy to the systematic study fo Judaism.  Reconciliation of religious faith with philosophical and scientific knowle

 Created in first seven centuries of Christian era. More was added on through each generation.

Series of laws regulating every step  in a mans life, from birth until death.  Didn't only state laws, but also stated the pro

Hasdai ibn Shaprut

(905-975). "Court Jew" under caliphs Abdar Rahmn III and al-Hakam II.  Court Physician, ade diplomatic missions to the Christian north, leader of Spanish Jewry

622:  emigration of Muhammad and his followers to the city of Medina.  Muhammad annihilates Jews of Arabia.
Jewish mysticism.  Spiritual quest for hidden truth or wisdom, the goal of which is union with the divine or sacred.  Froms of mysticism are found in all major world religions.  Opposite of philosophical standpoint, kabbalist dervies insigh
Kiddush ha-shem
Martyrdom celebrated as the ultimate ideal of Ashkenazic religiosity.  Self image of medieval Ashkenazic Jewry centered on the history of Jewish martyrs. Prayers honoring martyrs: yizkor, Av ha-rahaman, reading names of martyrs.
1135.  Cordoba.  During the Almohad persecution, his family moved to North Africa.  Moves to the East, settles in Cairo.  Philosopher who wrote Mishneh Torah and Guide of the Perplexed.

 Muhammad from Mecca...630: Muhammad and 10,000 men enter Mecca and claim it to be the new center of Islam.

When Muhammad arrived in Medina, following his departure of Mecca, he approached three tribes: Qaynuqa, Nadir, Qurayza (All Jewish).  It was here that Muhammad decided in favor of Mecca over Israel as the Islamic homeland.
Method of interpreting the bibl, to elucidate lessons or legal points; comprises elements of the Halakhah and Aggadah

200 CE: Judah ha-Nasi Study of abstract, apodictic principles of law... scriptural exposition... first codification of oral law
Mishneh Torah

1178; Compreshensive digest of rabbinic law.  Written in Hebrew.  Resolved conflicting interpretations.  Also included philosophical teachings as well.

Moses de Leon
1300.  Kabbalist.  Wrote Sefer ha-Zohar.

571, 611: Began career as prophet of Islam, 622: Emigrates from Mecca to Medina where he establishes first Islamic community.  Medina: first Islamic community.  632: Death of Muhammed

Pact of Umar
Around seventh century.  Letter addressed to Allah's servent Umar, the Commander of the Faithful, by non-Muslims asking for guaranteed protection.  Deal made which respects Islam as primary religion
40-60 ce: lays the foundations of Christian belief... Christianity clamid the "true Israel"
Privileges in medieval Ashkenaz 
1084.  Jewish community of Speyer.  The Bishop of Speyer allowed for Jewish inhabitants and allowed them to be involved in the same activities as the rest of the citizens.  They were also given their rights as far as practicing their religi
650, Islamic text, It states to go against non-Muslims.  
1040.  famed as the author of the first comprehenseve commentaries on the Talmud, Torah, and Tanakh.  Single most important rabbinic scholar of the Ashkenazic world.  Accepted and influential also in the Sephardic world. 
11th century.  Following the demise of the Uayyad Dynasty and the fragmentation of Muslim Spain into small principalities, the Christian kingdoms in the Iberian Peninsula launched the Reconquista.  Crusade against Islam.  Musilms formed uni

10th century. Parts of the Iberian Peninsula govered by Muslims, or Moors.   Patronage of Jewish arts and sciences, attracting Jewish scholars and poets to Cordoba   was the first to open for Andalusian Jewry.
Sefer Hasidim
late 12th century/early 13th:stated that in Christian towns, the Ashkenaz Jews acted just like the Christians.  Shows Jews fitting into society, not commonly seen.
The divine manifests itself in ten Sefirot representing an intermediate stage between god and creation.  The theory of Sefirot became the backbone of Spanish kabbalist teachings, represented by a great number of images.pp
Servi camere nostre
Following crusades: 1182, German empreror Frederick I declares the Jews of the German empire to be the empire's property.  Imperial protection of Jews; better protected during the third Crusade in 1188.  Attacking Jews form of social discone
Shmuel ibn Naghrila

1065.  Granad.  Patron of Jewish learning and poetry.  Leader in Jewish community in Granada.  Commander of Mulslim troops in Granada.

Sicut Iudeis
13th-15th centuries.  Medieval Church grants their petition to offer Jews shield of protection.  Much like the rights given by the Bishop of Speyer.

Jerusalem-400, Babylonian Talmud-500

1280.  Classical work of Jewish mysticism.  States that the Torah hols supernatural truths and divine secrets.  The tales relatedin the Torah are simply her outer garments.

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