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Art Fundamentals

Terms from Art Fundamentals Book, authors Ocvirk, Stinson, Wigg, Bone, Cayton, 10 edition


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Additive Color
Color created by superimposing light rays. Superimposing the three primary color lights - red, blue, and green - produces white. The secondaries are cyan, yellow and magenta.
Closed-Value Composition
Composition in which the values are limited by the edges or boundaries of shapes.
A technique of picturemaking in which real materials possessing actual textures are attached on the picture plane surface, often in combination with painted or drawn passages.
Rleating to differences of light and dark; the absence of hue and its intensity.
Abstract Texture
A texture derived from the appearance of an actual surface but rearranged and/or simplified by the artist to satisfy the demands of the artwork.
A sculptural term than means building up, assembling, or putting on material
Allover pattern
The repetition of design units in a recongizably systematic arrangement over an entire surface
Art that conforms to the traditions and conventions practice in art academies. Academic art stresses standards, set procedures, and rules.
Biomorphic Shape
An irregular shape that resembles the freely developed curves found in living organisms.
Actual Shape
A Clearly defined or positive area (as opposed to an implied shape).
Color Triad
three colors spaced an equal distance apart on the color wheel, fomring an equilateral triangle. The twelve-color wheel is made up of a primary triad, a secondary triad, and two intermediate triads.
1. Distribution of light and dark in a picture. 2. A technique of representaion that blends light and shade gradually to create the illusion of three-dimensional objects in space or atmosphere.
Chromatic Value
The relative degree of lightness or darkness demonstrated by a given color.
Elegant, decorative writing. Lines in artworks that possess qualities found in writing many be called "calligraphic" and are geneerally flowing and rhythmical
1. The purity of hue or its freedom from white, black or gray. 2. The intensity of Hue
Analogous Colors
Colors that are closely related in hue. They are usuually adjacent to each other on the color wheel.
Cast Shadow
The dark area that occurs on a surface as a result of something being placed between that surface and a light source
Originally a German School of architecture that flourished between World War 1 and World War II, the Bauhaus attracted many leading experimental artists of both two and three dimensional fields.
The visual response to different wavelengths of sunlight identified as red, green, blue, and so on; having the physical properties of hue, intensity and value.
Approximate Symmetry
The use of similiar imagery on both sides of a central axis. The imagery on one side resembles that on the other but is varied to prevent monotony.
1. The Selection, Simplification, and /or rearrangement of the representation of natural appearance. 2. Nonrepresentational work arranged simply to satisfy artists' needs for organization or expression. in varying degrees, abstraction is present in all works of art.
Characterized by considerable amounts of space; open, as opposed to massive (or tectonic) and often with extended appendages.
A sculptural technique in which liquid materials are shaped by being poured into a mold and then allowed to dry into a solid shape.
A sense of equilibrium achieved through implied weight, attention or attraction, by manuplating the visual elements within an artwork.
Atmospheric perspective
The illusion of depth produced in graphic works by lightening values, softening details, and textures, reducing value contrasts and nuetralizing colors in objects and they recede.
Color Tetrad
Four colors, equally spaced on the color wheel, containing a primary and its complement and a complementary pair of intermediates. This has also come to mean any organization of color on the wheel forming a rectangle that could include a double split-compliment.
amorphous shape
A shape without clear definition: formless, indistinct, and of uncertain dimension.
Anny stress or emphasis given to elements of a composition that makes them attract more attention than the other features around them. A ccent can be created by a brighter color, darker tone, great sieze, or any other means by which a difference is expressed.
Aesthetic, aesthetics
Tradtionally a branch of philosophy concerned with the theory of the "beautiful" asthetics is now a compound of the philosphy, psychology and sociaology of art. As such, aesthetics is no longer solely confied to determining what is beautiful in art, but attempts to discover the origins of the art experience and the relationship between art and other aspects of culture. In this book (Art Fundamentals) the term aethetics refers to the concern with artstic qualities of from, as opposed to the descriptive form or the mere recording of facts.
Having unlike, or noncorresponding, appearances - "without symmetry". An example: a two-dimensional artwork that, without any necessarily visible or implied axis, displays an uneven distribution of parts throughout.
A concept derived from Gestalt psychology describing the mental relationships that develop while incomplete information is grasped as a complete, unified whole, the artist provides visual suggestions, which the observer brings to final recognition.
A technique that combines actual items in a display
Actual texture
A surface that can be experienced through the sense of touch (as opposed to a surface visually simulated by the artist)

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