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Art History 2 - Artists


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Pope Clement VII commissioned Michelangelo to work ont he Medici Chapel and the Laurenziana Library and these buildings are considered turning-points in architectural history as they inaugurated the __________ stle of architecture.
Painter: one of the most progressive artists of the early Italian Quattrocentro from Florence
personal life
Giotto is the first artist of whom we begin to learn more of his _____________ as he was considered more than a craftsman and was recognized for his special abilities.
Last Judgment
Paul III brought Michelangelo to Rome in 1534 to paint the __________ on the altar wall of the Sistine Chapel.
Benozzo Gozzoli
_________ (1420-1497) painted the Journey of the Magi (1459-60) portraying members of the Medici family, with its princes flamboyantly dressed and set against a landscape, creating a fairy tale of the Renaissance.
Titian's mature style contained a 'worldliness' and 'vivacity' influenced by his dynamic personality and generous lifestyle, though ________'s poetical expression remains a constant in many of Titian's themes.
Donatello created three well known sculptures of _________ that became civic symbols of the Republic of Florence over the tyranny of the papacy.
Rosso Fiorentino
________ was a Florentine Mannerist painter and one of the founders of the Fontainebleau school in France.
El Greco
Who was the leading painter in Spain in the 16th century even though he was born on the island of Crete?
Arena Chapel of Padua
Giotto's greatest paintigns were those based on the life of St. Francis of Assisi found in the Scrovengi Chapel in the ________.
Belvedere Cortile
Bramante undertook the redesign of the Vatican Palaces around the __________ 1502.
__________ influenced later artists such as Raphael, Andrea del Sarto, Fra Bartolommeo and Correggio.
Andrea del Verrochio
___________'s (1435-1488) Baptism of Christ, 1473, contains portraits of Leonardo da Vinci and Botticelli, completed by the young artists themselves who were his assistants.
Arnolfo di Cambio
Model for subsequent artists who rose from their discipline such as painter, sculptor, etc to later become architects.
produced 2 reliefs, the Battle of the Centaurs and the Madonna of the Stairs (1489-92) that show he had achieved a personal style at an early age.
__________ (1386-1466) may be considred the greatest sculptor of the Quattrocentro in Florence because he worked in stone, wood, bronze, and created works in relief as well as "in the round".
School of Athens
The _________ describes for us the ideal of the High Renaissance, a work that contains majestic calm, clarity, and equilibrium.
Andrea del Verrochio
Leonardo was apprenticed to __________ where he learned to paint fresco, panel pictures, and how to work in marble and bronze.
scientific study
From 1514-1516 Leonardo lived in Rome where he was employed by Pope Leo X, lived in the Palazzo Belvedere at the Vatican and was occupied primarily with ___________.
Antonio Pollaiuollo
_________'s (1432-1498) main contribution to Florentine painting lay in his searching analysis of the anatomy of the body in movement or under conditions of strain, but he is also important for his pioneering interest in landscape, seen in the St. Sebastian and other works.
French Impressionists
Titian's study of how color and forms are affected by light may have anticipated the work of the ____________.
Bronze Sculptor: one of the most progressive artists of the early Italian Quattrocentro from Florence
Sistine Chapel
Perugino's most important work, St. Peter Receiving the Keys to the Church, was completed in the __________ in 1482.
Paolo Veronese
This artist changed the title of his painting from The Last Supper to the Feast in teh House of Levi rather than alter the aesthetic content of his painting.
___________ admired as a rising young artist in his own time, was considered a genius after his death and his importance has grown over time because of his insight into nature, scientific perspective, and foreshortening.
The Italian City States becaame important in the development of _______________ art and included Milan, Genoa, Venice, Florence, Pisa, and others.
Unlike any previous artist, Michelangelo was the subject of ________ in his own lifetime that offer us the most complete life of any artist up to that time.
Architect: one of the most progressive artists of the early Italian Quattrocentro from Florence
_____________'s reputation rests largely on his "De Re Aedificitoria" vol. X, a work on architecture, which was only published after his death and influenced architects of a later generation.
Matthias Grunewald
This artist's famous work the Isenheim Altarpiece was executed for Saint Anthony's Monsatery in Isenheim, Germany?
Michelangelo's tomb for Pope Julius II went through many revisions, caused legal problems for the artist, included the figure of _______, and was finally completed in 1542.
Domenico Ghirlandio
(1449-1494) was an early Renaissance painter of the Florentine school noted for his detailed narrative frescoes, which include many portraits of leading citizens of Florence.
Individualism Style
The Quattrocentro signified a change from Gothic in the increased market for portraites among the nobility and merchant class led to talented artists to sign their works and increased their _________ and _________.
military engineer
Michelangelo took an active part in the 1527-9 war against the Medici by supervising the Florentine fortivications as a ________.
Jan van Eyck
_________: the most famous and innovative Flemish painter of the 15th century, painted the Ghent Altarpiece and the Arnolfini Wedding.
The Adoration of the Magi
Leonardo's first large painting, __________ (1481) was also left unfinished but a drawing survives.
___________ was more of an "idea man" and not as interested in solving architectural structural problems as was Brunelleschi.
Luca Signorelli
__________'s (1450-1523) finest works are in Orvieto Cathedral, where he painted a magnificent series of six frescoes illustrating the end of the world and the Last Judgment 1499-1504. The latter had an influence of the Last Judgment painted by Michelangelo in the Sistine Chapel.
Titian's last painting, _________, 1573-76, was completed after his death by another artist and intended by Titian for his tomb.
Sistine Chapel Ceiling
In 1508 Michelangelo began the painting of the _________ in the Vatican.
In 1516 he travelled to _________ at the invitation of King Francis I and spent his last years there until his death on May 2, 1519.
Luca della Robia
____________ (1399-1482) enjoyed the reputation of being one of the leaders of the modern or Renaissance style during his lifetime but is now remembered for his development of colored, glazed terracotta and his popular invention of the half-length Madonna and Child in white on a blue ground.
Guilio Romano
_________'s great architecturall work was the Palazzo del Te.
Light Shadow
The Quattrocentro signified a change from the Gothic in the use of _______ and ________ that created a new painting technique that overlaid thanslucent layers of color to create a sense of depth, volume, and form so subtly that there is no perceptible transition.
Architect/Architectural Theorist: one of the most progressive artists of the early Italian Quattrocentro from Florence.
Madonna and Child
Fra Filippo Lippi is known for his sensitive _______ paintings with an interest in the landscape as his background.
Geertgen tot sins Jans
Who was best known for his slender, doll-like figures with smaooth egg-like heads influenced by contemporary wood carvings?
The __________ were a Florentine family of bankers that rose to power in teh 1200's to be the unofficial rulesrs of the republic of Florence and patrons of the arts.
_________ (1452-1519) was a Florentine artist, one of the great masters of the High Renaissance, who worked as a painter, sculptor, architect, engineer, and scientist.
The Giving of the Keys to St. Peter by Perugino inspired ________'s first major work, The Marriage of the Virgin.
Raphael's _________ (1517) influenced the Mannerist movement and tends toward an expression that may even be called Baroque.
___________ (1377-1446) was an architect and sculptor considered to be one of the chief leaders in the early period of the Renaissance movement.
Sistine Chapel
The colors and figures of the School of Athens were directly influenced by Michelangelo's work in ___________.
In 1421, _____________ built the Ospedale degli Innocenti Loggia.
Bramante did the fundamental work on rebuilding St. Peter's which was later to carry on by __________.
human figure
Raphael was also a keen student of archaeology and of ancient Greco-Roman sculpture which is apparent in his paintings of the _______.
From 1420-1434 Brunelleschi become the architect of the Florence Cathedral and built the __________.
Heironymous Bosch
Whose paintings, collected by Philip II of Spain, featured such titles as the Haywain, the Temptation of St. Anthony, and the Garden of Earthly Delights?
Giotto is thought to have designed the _________ of the Cathedral of Florence.
chief architect
In 1546 Michelangelo was appointed _________ to St. Peter's and was doing more there than had been done for thirty years.
Raphael was influenced by _________'s technical studies such as chiascuro and his sfumato.
Last Supper
Leonardo's ___________ Santa Maria della Grazie, Milan, used an experimental technique of oil on dry plaster that lead to its deterioration as early as 1500.
aesthetics form
Leone Battista Alberti (1404-1472) was an ecclesiastic and artist of the fifteenth century that studied Roman ruins for their ____________ and ___________, not their structure.
____________ (1266-1337) was the founder of the art of painting in Italy since all fourteenth-century art shows his influence as his successors continued to work in his new style.
School of Athens
The decoration of __________ was perhaps Raphael's greatest work.
Titian was a pupil of Giovanni Bellini and worked closely with _________ in his early career so that his early work shows their influence.
Realism Expression
Quattrocentro signified a change from Gothic via increased interest in ___________ and __________ which led to depicting earthly as opposed to gilded backgrounds, correctly proportioned figures and the depiction of emotion on faces.
Lorenzo Magnifici
__________ (1449-1492) was considered a just ruler, patron, of the arts, a poet, and accomplished humanist that developed a school for sculptors in Florence that included the young Michelangelo.
In 1507 Raphael painted the Deposition of Christ which demonstrates the influence of __________ on his work by the depiction of the figures' anatomy.
Guilio Romano
________ (1499-1546) was the chief pupil of Raphael with whom he later collaborated on numerous projects.
__________ (1450-1523) was a friend of Leonardo da Vinci and had great influence on the young Raphael who worked with im early in his career.
The Quattrocentro signified a change from Gothic in the increased interest inn secular themes and in __________ as an interest to depict or emulate past styles
Andrea Palladio
This architect's The Four Books of Architecture was the masterwork that ensured his place in architectural history.
Battle of San Romano
Uccello's most famous paintings are three panels representing the ___________ 1455 that contains Renaissance elements, such as a sculptural treatment of forms and fragments of a broken perspective scheme in this work although the bright handling of color and the decorative patterns of the figures and landscape are Gothic in style.
________ was the most successful Venetian painter after Titian's death.
Paolo Uccello
__________ completed the monochrome fresco of an equestrian monument to Sir John Hawkwood in 1436 that displays a single-point perspectivescheme, a sculptural treatment of the horse and rider, and a sense of controlled potential energy within the figure.
Raphael altered ________'s plans for St Peter's by transforming the plans of the church from a Greek or radial to a Latin or longitudinal design.
Agnolo Bronzino
_________ was court painter to Duke Cosimo I de Medici and his work influenced the course of European court portraiture for a century.
Raphael's Madonnas, painted in 1505-07, such as the Madonna and the Goldfinch and La Belle Jardiniere show the influence of ________'s Madonna and Child with St. Anne paintings.
Treatise on Painting
Leonardo had apprentices in Milan, for whom he wrote various tests later compiled as _____________ left undiscovered after his death until 1656.
Piero Della Francesca
____________ (1416-1492) was forgotten after his death but is now regarded as one of the supreme artists of the Quattrocentro due to his use of broad masses of color and the meditative grandeur created by his use of light.
Paolo Uccello
_________'s (1397-1475) main contribution to the Renaissance is his attempt to reconcile the decorative late Gothic and the new heroic styloe of the early Renaissance.
Leonardo's largest sculptural commission was for a giant bronze _________ for the Sforza in Milan of which the large clay model was destroyed by French archers in 1499.
Cosimo the Elder
__________ (1389-1464) was the founder of Medici power, a patron of art and letters, and a humanist and friend and patron of Brunelleschi and Michelozzo.
__________ may lay claim to being the greatest sculptor, painter, and draughtsman that has ever lived, as well as one of the greatest architects and poets.
Pieter Breughel the Elder
The greatest Netherlandish painter of the 16th century and painted landscapes and scenes of peasant life.
In 1516 _________ died and Titian became the official painter of the Republic, a status he held until his death.
City States
The rise of the Italian ___________ during the 11th century created communal governments under the leadership of the merchant class that had grown wealthy through trade3, banking and such industries as woolen textiles.
Sacred and Profane Love
The influence of Giorgione's poetry is understood in the painting _________ 1515, but Titian's style will become more dynamic throughout his career.
Masaccio's (1402-1429) chief work in the _________ chapel (1426) contains the important convention of the addition of portraits of important people in his work.
Andrea Mantegna
________ (1431-1506) was one of the foremost north Italian painters of the 15th century who mastered perspective and foreshortening and made important contributions to the compositional techniques of Renaissance painting.
Brunelleschi went to Rome with _________ after losing the Florence Baptistry door competition where his study of the structures of Roman ruins led him to become an architect.
draw with his brush
Titian's use of color to _________ influenced many later artists such as Poussin, Rubens, and Velazquez.
Giorgio Bologne
What Flemish born sculptor was the greatest sculptor of the age of Mannerism after Michelangelo?
Term used by Leonardo da Vinci to refer to a painting technique which overlays translucent layers of color to create perceptions of depth, volume, and form so subtly that there is no perceptible transition.
_________ (1475-1564) was first apprenticed to Domenico Ghirlandaio in 1488 where he learned his fresco technique and where he first began his lifelong habit of drawing the works of other artists to learn their techniques.
The technique of modeling and defining forms through contrasts of light and shadow.
_________ started his reinterpretation of antiquity with the small temple next to San Pietro in Montorio which left a deep impression the artists of his own day, including Raphael.
Arnolfo di Cambio Giotto
The greatest forerunners of art in teh Quattrocentro were _____________: a sculptor and architect and __________: the painter.
___________ (1381-1455) won the competition for the 2nd Bronze doors of the baptistery in Florence, (north side) held by the merchant's guild in 1401, beating out Brunelleschi and Donatello among others.
__________ was considered among the first to impart character and personality in the subject rather than simply beauty and his works contained close likenesses of actual living persons.
__________ carved the David (1501-04) which served as the symbol for the new Republic of Florence.
Robert Campin
_________: the Master of Flamalle, painted the Merode Alterpiece
Martin Schoengauer
What German engraver and painter's works influenced the young Albrecht Durer?
Rogier van der Weyden's skill was his ability to depict a rich diversity of emotion in works such as his _________ for the chapel of the Archer's Guild of Louvain.
_________ (1444-1514) was the greatest architect of the High Renaissance.
_________ painted many Madonna and Child panels and very descriptive portraits of people such as Lorenzo de Medici.
Domenico Veneziano
____________ (1410-1461) was one of the foudners of the 15th century Florentine school of painting whose work contains accurate perspective and a sculptural quality of the figures that suggests he was influenced by Masaccio.
Brunelleschi entered into competition to complete the reliefs of the bronze doors of the Baptistry at Florence but lost to __________ in 1401.
Raphael became an important portraitist as he created a new style of presenting his sitters in interesting ___________ situations, such as the portrait of Leo X with Two Cardinals (1517-19) or that of aldassare Castigilione (1516).
Antonio Correggio
________ was highly influential on the development of Baroque dome painting.
Mona Lisa
The ___________ (1503-06) is a portrait that is respecteed as much for its technical innovation as for the mysteriousness of its subject.
This artist's Madonna of the Long Neck is among the archetypal works of Mannerism.
Jacopo Pontormo
_________ was the first Florentine painter to break away from High Renaissance classicism to create a more personal, expressive style that is sometimes classified as early Mannerist.
Piero Della Francesca
____________'s most significant works were Baptism of Christ (1440), Annunciation (1450), Portrait of Sigismundo Malatesta (1451), Constantine's Dream (1455), Resurrection (1460), Portraits of the Duke and Duchess of Urbino (1465).
Brunelleschi was the first to apply __________ to art in accordance with definitely formulated rules.
__________ (1445-1510) was a student of Fra Fillipo Lippi and Verrochio
Albrecht Durer
This German painter and printmaker is considered the greatest German Renaissance artist.
Michelangelo designed the ___________ the Civic Center of Rome which was not completed until after his death around an oval shape, with the famous antique bronze equestrian statue of the Roman emperor Marcus Aurelius in the center.
Fra Angelico
_________ (1400-1455) was a monastic painter and a highly professional artist, who was in touch with the most advanced developments in contemporary Florentine art while maintaining a dedicated and intense personal spiritualism.
School of Athens
The ___________ may be the most well-known fresco of Raphael and is considerd one of the culminating works of the High Renaissance.
Raphael died on his 37th birthday and is buried in __________ in Rome.
__________ (1483-1520) is best known for his Madonnas and for his large figure compositions in the Vatican in Rome.
Hans Holbein the Younger
Known for the compelling realism of his portraits of the King Henry VIII of England this German artist died of the plague in London.
Sculptor in many media: one of the most progressive artists of the early Italian Quattrocentro from Florence
Last Supper
Castagno's most important works were the __________ 1445 and three scenes from the Passion of Christ.
In 1425-1452 Ghiberti created the East Doors of the Baptistery called the "gates of Paradise" by ______________. Ghiberti considered these to be his best works as they had an impact on subsequent sculptors of bronze reliefs by virtue of their use of perspective and drift towards realism.
is best known for the celebrated poetic allegories of the Primavera, 1478, and the Birth of Venus 1478.
_________'s masterpiece was a series of frescoes (1465-74) for the Camera degli Sposi (bridal chamber) of the Palazzo Ducale where his portraits of the ruling family and his study of the art of illusionistic perspective became the prototpe of illusionistic ceiling painting that was to become an important element of baroque and rococo art.
In 1482 ________ entered the service of the duke of Milan, Judovico Sforza and served principally as military engineer in the duke's army.
entered a sculpture school sponsored by Lorenzo de Medici where he began his study of sculpture, antique Roman works, neo-platonic thought, and poetry and established his long association with the Medici family.
Hugo van der Goes
The Portinari Altarpiece aws a large triptych of the Nativity contracted in ruges and installed in Florence after being painted by _________.
Architect/Painter/Sculptor: one of the most progressive artists of the early Italian Quattrocentro from Florence.
Dead Christ
Mantegna's _________ 1501 was a tour de force of foreshortening that pointed ahead to the style of the 16th century mannerism.
Giorgio Vasari
First published in 1550, this artist's book on other artists overshadows the works of art and architecture he produced.
Giovanni Bellini
____________ (1426-1516) was the founder of the Venetian school of painting and raised Venice to a center of Renaissance art that rivaled Florence and Rome.
Fra Filippo Lippi
__________ (1406-1469) was a monastic and a professional artist that had a scandalous love affair with a nun, Lucrezia Buti, who later bore his children.
Leonardo Michelangelo Raphael
Many artists of the time were dominated by the influence of _________ or __________ and became less talented imitators of greater artists, but __________'s special skill lay in his ability to be influenced but not dominated by these great artists.
High Renaissance
The Sistine Chapel Ceiling was at once recognized as a supreme work of art and defines the concepts of the __________ more completely than any other work of art.
Battle of Anghiari
Leonardo's _____________ was completed but his experimental wax and oil technique ruined the work when he tried using fires to dry the paint more quickly.
The St. Peter's ________ (1499-1501) is a sculpture that was highly polished and finished and shows Michelangelo had mastered anatomy, the disposition of drapery, and solved the problem of representing complex figures into the renaissance ideal of a pyramidal shape.
Giovanni Medici High Renaissance
________ son of Lorenze, rose to the appacy as Leo X and his cousin, and Guilio de Medici, later known as Clement IV became popes and they were patrons of many great works of art created during the ___________________.
_________ (1490-1576) may be considered the greatest painter of the Venetian School.
Arnolfo di Cambrio designed the major ecclesiastical and public monuments of Florence, the _________ and city hall or Palazzo Publico.
Jean Fouquet
Who was the most accomplished French painter of the 15th century who depicted the mistress of the King of France, Agnes Sorel, as Madonna?
Perspective Vanishing Point
The Quattrocentro signified a changed from Gothic in the use of __________ and __________ to indicate depth.
Andrea del Catagno
____________ (1423-1457) was one of the most influential 15th century Italian Renaissance painters, best known for the emotional power and naturalistic treatment of figures in his work.

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