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The Art of the Romans

Terms

undefined, object
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decumarios
The east-west street in a Roman town, intersecting the cardo at right angles.
tempera
pigments in egg yolk
mausoleum
an above-ground tomb
compluvium
rectangular opening at the roof of the atrium
fenestration
The arrangement of the windows of a building
caldarium
The hot-bath section of a Roman bathing establishment
natatio
in Roman baths, the swimming pool
frigidarium
The cold-bath section of a Roman bathing establishment
allegorical
dual roles, symbolism
circuses
racetracks
patricians
upper class citizens
domus
a Roman private house
forum
the public square of an ancient Roman city; center civic life
taberna
in Roman architecture, a single-room shop usually covered by a barrel vault
trepidarium
The warm-bath section of a Roman bathing establishment
composite
A capital with an ornate combination of Ionic volutes and Corinthian acanthus leaves that became popular in Roman times
aqueducts
equivalent to public plumbing
coffers
recesses that help relieve the weight of the dome
voussoirs
stones that make up the arch
attic
the uppermost story above the masonry
pentitex maximos
chief priest of state religion
cardo
The north-south street in a Roman town, intersecting the decumanus at right angles
atrium
the court of a Roman house that is partly open to the sky
imperator
meaning "commander in chief," from which the word emperor is derived
porphyry
purple marble
oculus
The round central opening or "eye" of a dome
rusticated
rough masonry with a rustic appearance on the surfaces
veristic
sculpture that looks like the sculpture matter (means in truth)
Pax Romana
200 years of peace in Rome
amphitheater
Literally, a double theater. A Roman building type resembling two Greek theaters put together.
first style
The earliest style of Roman mural painting. Also called the masonry style, because the aim of the artist was to imitate, using painted stucco relief, the appearance of costly marble panels
apotheosis
Elevated to the rank of gods or the ascent to heaven
castrum
military fortification
insula
n Roman architecture, a multistory apartment house, usually made of brick-faced concrete; also refers to an entire city block.
continuous narration
In painting or sculpture, the convention of the same figure appearing more than once in the same space at different stages in a story
plebians
lower class citizens
roundrel
the circular relief narratives on the arch
palaestra
An ancient Greek and Roman exercise area, usually framed by a colonnade, often found in bathing establishments
decursio
The ritual circling of a Roman funerary pyre
impluvium
In a Roman house, the basin located in the atrium that collected rainwater (and mosquitoes)
senate
body of advisory citizens that governed during the republic in early Rome
peristyle
In ancient Greek architecture, a colonnade all around the cella and its porch(es)
tetrarchy
rule by four
keystone
stone in the middle of the arch that keeps arch together
second style
In Roman mural painting, from ca. 80 to ca. 15 B.C. the aim was to dissolve the confining walls of a room and replace them with the illusion of a three-dimensional world constructed in the artist's imagination
princeps
first citizen
third style
painted wall surfaces as a solid color, decorated with whimsical architectural features
fourth style
in Roman mural painting, it marks a return to architectural illusionism, but the architectural vistas of this style are irrational fantasies
megalography
depictions glorifying worshipers
spandrel
The roughly triangular space enclosed by the curves of adjacent arches and a horizontal member connecting their vertexes; also, the space enclosed by the curve of an arch and an enclosing right angle. The area between the arch proper and the framing columns and entablature.
imagines
wax portraits of ancestors in ancient Rome
basilica
In Roman architecture, a public building for assemblies (especially tribunals), rectangular in plan with an entrance usually on a long side
triumphal arch
A curved structural member that spans an opening and is generally composed of wedge-shaped blocks (voussoirs) that transmit the downward pressure laterall

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