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Art 105 Test two


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the study of design and compostion
The structure of art.
The elements
1. line
2. color
3. Form (shape)
4. Texture
5. Space
The Principles (rules)
1. Balance
2. Pattern
3. Emphasis
4. contrast
The Elements of Line:
Some important functions of line
a. create eye movement
b. define shape
c. create textural surface
d. produce certain moods
The Elements of Line:
Line Structure and moods
The vertical line:
Power, dignity and strength
The Elements of Line:
Line Structure and moods
The Horizontal line
Rest, calm, serenity
The Elements of Line:
Line Structure and moods
The Diagnoal Line
action, movement, dynamics
The Elements of Line:
Line Structure and moods
The curved Line
Soothing, grace, sensuality
The Elements of Line:
Line Structure and moods
The Broken Line
can envoke a sense of appreciation, irritability or concern
The Elements of Line:
Implied Lines
Lines can be implied where they do not actually exist. A row of trees can suggest a line your eyes will fill in the space between a series of dots or marks, creating a line. Edges of objects, shapes or forms.
The Elements of Line:
Line Combinations
Thin, fat, medium lines
The Elements of Line:
Cross-hatched lines
Short quick, criss-crossing strokes, suggests texture
The Elements of Line:
What balances a dominant Diagnol line?
A Countering balancing diagnol (a Line going the other way) balances the work
The Element of Color:
The color wheel
useful device to understanding color relationships
The Element of Color:
The SOURCE of color
light is the source
The Element of Color:
Blacks, Whites, grays
The Element of Color:
The properties of colors:
The name of a color. It refers to the position in the light spectrum
The Element of Color:
The properties of colors:
Primary hues
red, blue, yellow
The Element of Color:
The properties of colors:
Secondary Hues
mixing two primaries
Orange, green, violet
The Element of Color:
The properties of colors:
Tertiary/ Intermediate Hues
Primary and neighboring secondary.
Red-orange, yellow-orange, yellow-green, Blue-green, blue-violet, red-violet
The Element of Color:
The properties of colors:
Refers to the lightness or darkness of a color
The Element of Color:
The properties of colors:
add white to hue
The Element of Color:
The properties of colors:
add black to hue
The Element of Color:
The properties of colors:
The brightness/dulness of a color
The properties of color
The Element of color:
Color harmonies
colors that go well together, color schemes - same thing
The Element of color:
Complementary Colors
2 colors, opposite side of the color wheel. Purple and yellow
The Element of color:
Analogous Colors
3 colors next to eachother on the wheel that have single color in common. Yellow-green, green, blue-green
The Element of color:
Split Complementary
3 colors usning the 2 colors next to the complementary. Red: blue-green, yellow-green
The Element of color:
Triadic Harmony
3 colors equi distance on the wheel making an equal lateral triangle
Cool colors
The Element of color:
Monochromatic Colors
When an artist uses one color
The Element Shape/Form:
The difference between shape and form:
Shape: 2d
Form: 3d
The Element Shape/Form:
Two Categories of Shape
Easily recognized. Such as circles squares, triangles, etc. The geometric shape is precise and sharply defined
The Element Shape/Form:
Two categories of shape
Reflect the free-flowing aspects of growth. Most natural objects are organic
The Element Shape/Form:
Positive and Negative Shapes
Positive shapes/forms are the colid, tangible aspects of the composition. Negative shapes/forms are the areas that either surround the shape/form or exist bewtween/forms. For the artist, the negatives are as important as positves in a design.
The Element Shape/Form:
Qualities of Shapes
Light and heavy shapes
Smooth and textured shapes
Static and Dynamic Shapes
The Element of Texture:
one of the prime ingredients of surface quality. Texture denotes a material's characteristic physical structure. The texture readily identifies the material....a tactile element.
The Element of Texture:
Two Kinds of Texture
Real(Actual) Texture
A) ACTUAL / REAL TEXTURE – This category usually emphasizes the surface qualities of the medium with which an artist works with, as it is applied to the working ground such as a canvas. Van Gogh’s paintings serve a particularly good example of the surface qualities of the oil medium. In Van Gogh’s paintings, rough textures have been produced by building up pigment on the canvas, (this technique is called impasto). It is significant that painters such as Vincent regard actual textures as an aid to his expression. Yes, it is true that one can see the wheat field or cottage in his paintings, however, his expressive mode rests with the viewer ‘feeling’ the substance of the oil paint. In fact, you immediately see the emphasis placed on the textural qualities of the oils.
The Element of Texture:
Two Kinds of Texture
Simulated/Implied/Illusionary Texture
B) SIMULATED / IMPLIED / ILLUSIONARY TEXTURE This kind of texture is very common in the field of art. Such textures call for a careful rendering or copying of the light and dark patterns created by surface character. The Dutch and Flemish (think of Vermeer & Van Eyck) produced amazingly naturalistic effects in still life, portraits, and genre paintings. Simulated textures are often associated with trompe l’oeil paintings which make a blatant attempt to “fool the eye.”
The Element of Space:
In order to create true space (3d reality), The artist will have to use the technique called____. It was during the _____ that artists mastered this system called_____.
Perspective,Renaissance, Perspective.
The Element of Space:
Linear Perspectives
a mechanical system of drawing to give the illusion of depth on a flat surface. All straight, parallel lines receding into the distance are drawn to one or more vanishing points in such a drawing.
The Element of Space:
Aerial or Atmospheric Perspectives
a way of drawing that shows depth in space by such methods as overlapping objects, using lighter values for more distant objects, using less detain in distant objects, (objects further away from us appear less distict, often cooler or bluer in color, and the contrast between light and dark is reduced), and using warm colors for nearer objects. Leonardo da Vinci is responsible for formulating the rules of aerial perspective
The Element of Space:
The representation of forms on a two-dimensional surface by presenting the length in such a way that the long axis appears to project toward or recede away from the viewer.
A good composition:
The five aesthetic elements of design discussed in class are the fundamental building blocks that artists use to create a work of art. When the artist arranges these elements in a visually pleasing way, they are ____. Thus we can
composing, design and composition.
A Good Composition:
Center of Interest
a focal point, main attraction. the area where the eyes go immediately, (doesn't have to been an item, just an area). Often placed in accordance to the rule of thirds
A good Composition:
Eye Movement
the artist must allow the compostion to move & not remain static. Eye movement often leads the viewer to the center of interest.
A good composition:
As in our everyday living, balance is important.
A good composition:
3 types of balance
Formal Balance(Symmetrical Balance)
Informal Balance (asymetrical Balance)
Radial Balance
A good composition:
Formal Balance(Symmetrical Balance)
the arrangement of equal shapes placed to the right and left of the picture axis. this type of balance can be seen in Leonardo's Last Supper.
A good composition:
Informal Balance (asymetrical Balance)
a composition that has two apparently balanced halves that are not a mirror image of one another. Though the two sides of the design do not match they seem to possess the same visual weight, (visual weight refers to the apparent lightness or heaviness of the visual element on each side of the composition). Often the artist can achieve this by placing the lighter weighted element further from the picture axis to counter balance the heavier element on the other side.
A good composition:
Radial Balance
this type of balance allows everything to radiate outward from a central point. Examples of this would be a Rose Window on a Gothic Cathedral or a bicycle wheel. Several examples of radial balance can be seen in nature.
The Principles of Design
Any formal element that repeats itself creates a
Pattern. Therefore, pattern may be achieved by repeating a shape, line, or color. Nature is a master designer of pattern
and artists have often been inspired by its lessons.
A term which is connected to pattern is called, MOTIF.
The Principles of Design
A principle of design by which the artist may use
opposing sizes, shapes, contrasting colors or other means to
place greater attention on certain areas or objects. Artist’s
employ emphasis in order to draw the viewer’s attention to one area of the work. We refer to this area the focal point or center of interest.
The Principles of Design
A principle of design that refers to differences in
colors, values, textures, and other elements in an artwork. Besides
achieving emphasis ( # 3), it also creates contrast. The intentions for contrast are many; however, as a viewer, one sees dramatic variety through the use of this principle. Some examples are thick bold lines contrasted with thin delicate lines…similar shapes of
different sizes…angled-edged shapes contrasted with some curved
shapes. Contrast gives design a “more interesting” look.
Motif =
The dominant idea or feature in a work of art. Patterns
can be made by repeating this motif.
The principle of pattern is an especially important decorative
The 7 plagues that afflict our past (in order)
1. war
2. nature
3. pollution
4. Agriculture
5. Urban development and industrial development
6. tourism
7. looters (vandalism)
the most drastic and dramatic of the plagues (ie parthanon)
floods, aqua alta
Farming: Plowing, cuts pottery or something buried, irrigation does damage too if near an ancient site, water seeps in and BRINGS SALTS UP
Indifference, not caring
The floods of florence date and culprit
1966, Nature was the main culprit.
The pieta incident
date and explain
1972, st. peters Basilica - vandalism, lazlo toth hits statue with hammer thinking he was Christ
The david incident Date/culprit?
1991, vandalism
The Last Supper, Restoration. culprit
war, nature, tourism, human error (both by artist(wrong paint) and poor restorations)
The sistine chapel, what part, culprit?
The ceiling and the Altar wall (as well as the prehistoric cave sites such as Lascaux), = Tourism is # 1 (people bring in debris, bacteria, co2, human heat) , followed by nature.
The Brancacci chapel culprit
(Masaccio’s Expulsion from the Garden fresco) = Pollution
The bell tower at pisa
Nature( sinkhole)
The restoration of the church of St. Francis at assisi
Nature (earthquake)
The Defacement of Guernica date culprit?
1974, vandalism
The Plight of _____. Culprit?
Venice - queen of the adriatic, aqua alta. Nature
⬢The Athenian Acropolis (in particular, The Parthenon
# 1 is Pollution, war, & nature
The last judgment
The Pathenon
The last 50 years of human civilization pollution has done the most damave of anything in its history
The irony in cleaning surface pollution on outdoor art works....
According to experts, cleaning may in fact speed up the
process of decay. When the “protective crusts” are removed,
result is vulnerability of original surface to more devastating
penetration of polluted air. This same protective crust,
(if left on), is slowly destroying the surface. Here lies the

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