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vocab ch. 18

Terms

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dissolved oxygen deficit
the difference between the amount of oxygen in water when it is fully saturated and the amount of oxygen actually present
sewage
waste and wastewater produced by residential and commercial users that is discharged into sewers
drainage basin
the area from which surface waters derive surface runoff and groundwater flows
wathershed
the area from which surface waters derive surfece runoff and groundwater flows
waterworks
human systems for supplying water
prior appropriation doctrine
a practice dictating that no one owns teh water in a stream and that all people, corporations, and municipalities have the right to use water for beneficial purposes
groundwater discharge
locations where groundwater resurfaces
secondary treatment
treatment of municipal wastes that reduces the number of pathogens and accelerates the decomposition of organic wastes by enhanceng the actions of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria
chemical oxygen demand
the amount of oxygen required to oxidize the organic material in a sample
instream
uses of water that occur without the water being diverted or withdrawn from surface water or groundwater
hydrologic cycle
the flow of water from the ocean through the atmosphere to the land and back to the ocean
surface water
water that sits or flows above land, including lakes, oceans, rivers and streams
biochemical oxygen demand
the amount of oxygen required for aeroic organisms to decomose organic material in wastewater over a five- to twenty-day period; the usual measure is five days
membrane separation
physical separation of salt from water by pushing seawater through thin filters that do not allow minerals to pass
Continental Divide
the series of ridges through the Rocky Mountains that divides the country into two drainage basins
precipitation
the flow of water from the atmosphere as a liquid (rain) or solid (snow or ice)
runoff
water taht flows horizontally across the land toward the nearest surface water
privatization
selling a state-owned business to private investors
offstream
water that is withdrawn or diverted from surface water or groundwater
withdrawals
water tha is removed from its source
reasonable use doctrine
a doctrine that allows landowners to pump water for any beneficial use and does not recognize priority among users
drip irrigation
slow, localized application of water just above the soil surface
reservoir
a natural or artificial pond or lake that is used for water storage or regulation
riparian water rights
laws that allow a landowner to use a share of the water that flows naturally past his or her property but do not entitle a landowner to divert water for storage in a reservoir for use in the dry season or to use water on land outside the watershed
artesian well
a well in which water rises to the surface due to internal pressure
infiltration
vertical movements of water through the soil
condense
to change from a gas to a liquid as a result of being cooled
water pollution
purposeful or accidental addition of materials that contaminate water
primary treatment
treatment of municipal wastes that removes large solids by mechanical techniques such as screens and setting tanks
absolute water scarcity
a ration of annual water availability to popualtion less than 1,700 m cubed per person per year
desalinization
production of freshwater by removing the salt from salt water and brackish waters
freshwater
water that contains less than 1,000 milligrams per liter of dissolved solids
cone of depression
a drop in the water table around a well
best available technology
the most effective, economically achievable, state-of-the-art technology currently in use for controlling pollution, as determined by the U.S. EPA
recharge area
the area from which an aquifer recieves its water
best practicable control technology
sets uniform industrywide effluent standards that approximate the average amount of control achieved from existing technology in the specific industry
swimmable
a category of water quality in which recreation in and on the water will not threaten people's health
overdraft
removing water from an aquifer faster than it is recharged
water table
the top portion of the aquifer
sorption
a process in which soil organic carbon soaks up or attracts agricultural chemicals
groundwater
water tha fills the pore spaces of an aquifer
tertiary treatment
treatment of municipal wastes in which undecomposed organic nutrients are separated from the wastewater which is discharged back to the environment
xenobiotics
organic compounds that are synthesized by humans and therefore are relatively resistant to organic decay
discharge
water returned after use, frequently at or near its source
fecal coliform count
measures the number of coliform bacteria per 100 milliliters
thermal desalting
a process in which seawater is boiled or evaporated and the steam or evaporate is drawn off as pure water
aquifer
a soul layer in which all pore spaces are filled with water
confined aquifer
groundwater that accumulates between two impermeable layers
water diversion
movement of water from surface water or groundwater over some distance to its point to use
correlative rights doctrine
rules that govern water use and force landowners to share water
evaporation
conversion of a liquid to a gas
fishable
a water body in which fish an shellfish can thrive and can be eaten safely by people
pathogens
microorganisms that cause disease
subsidence
a drop in land level due to the weight of the overlying material compressing soil particles after water has been withdrawn
salt water
water that contains more than 35000 milligrams per liter of disolved solids, most often salt
unconfined aquifer
an aquifer that sits atop an impermeable layer
saltwater untrusion
occurs when overdrafts allow saldt water to flow into aquifer pore spaces that were previously occupied by freshwater
nonpoint pollutants
pollutants that are not discharged or emitted from a specific point, such as a pipe or smokestack
consumption
the purchase of goods and services by consumers
rule of absolute ownership
the principle that allows landowners to pump as much groundwater as they want

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