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Vocab from the third part of Art History


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animal style
a type of artistic design popular in Europe and western Asia during the ancient and medieval periods., characterized by linear, animal-like forms arranged in intricate patterns. The style is often usd on metalwork or other precious materials.
a type of linear decoration particularly popular in Celtic art, in which ribbonlike bands are illusionistically depicted as if woven under and over one another.
a type of paper made from animal skins. Vellum is a thick, expensive support.
a room in a monastery for writing or copying manuscripts.
the data placed at the end of a book, especially a late medieval manuscript, listing the book's author, publisher, illuminator, and other information related to its production; sometimes called the imprint.
in technical bookmaking terms, a large sheet of paper, which, when folded and cut, becomes four separate pages in a book. Also: a page or a leaf in a large-scale manuscript or book.
the monumental west-facing entrance section of a Carolingian, Ottonian, or Romanesque church. The exterior consists of multiple stories between two towers; the interior includes an entrance vestibule, a chapel, and a series of galleries overlooking the nave.
a square or rectangular courtyard, sometime with gardens, surrounded on all sides by a vaulted arcade. Typically devoted to spiritual contemplation or scholarly reflection, a cloister is usually part of a monastery, a church, or occasionally, a university.
the dining hall for monks or nuns in a monastery or convent.
Rule of St. Benedict
an Italian monk, called Benedict of Nursia (d. 547), author of a rule for monks that became the basis of the Benedictine order, b. Norcia (E of Spoleto). He went to Rome to study, then withdrew to Subiaco to live as a hermit; after three years he was renowned for his holiness. He founded a community of monks made up of cells of 13 monks each. This he eventually left, and at Monte Cassino, in an old pagan holy place, he started the first truly Benedictine monastery, although the benedictine order did not come into being until Carolingian times. The fruits of Benedict's experience appear in the Rule of St. Benedict (in Latin), which became the chief rule in Western monasticism under the Carolingians.. The Rule's 73 chapters are full of a spirit of moderation and common sense. They set forth the central ideas of Benedictine monasticism. Feast: March 21.
modular system
a system of architecture where the proportions are based on a standard unit of measurement.
one segment of a decorative system of a building. The bays divide the space of a building into regular spatial units and are usually marked by elements such as columns, piers, buttresses, windows or vaults.
vault or chamber beneath the main level of a church, used as a meeting place or burial place. It undoubtedly developed from the catacombs used by early Christians as places of worship. Early churches were commonly built over the tombs of martyrs. Such vaults, located beneath the main altar, developed into the extensive crypts of the Middle Ages that in many churches of the 11th and 12th cent. occupied the entire space beneath the sanctuary. At Canterbury the 12th-century crypt forms a large and complete lower church in itself. The crypt of the Rochester Cathedral is partly above ground. The cathedrals at Chartres and at Bourges have crypts typical of the Gothic development.
part of the body of a saint or a thing closely connected with the saint in life.
a container, often made of precious materials, used a repository for sacred relics.
a raised, balconylike platform or passageway running along the exterior wall of a building inside or outside.
blind arcades
an arcade series where the arched openings are closed. An architectural decorative motif often found on the exterior of buildings.
triumphal arch
a freestanding, massive stone gateway with a large central arch, built as urban ornament and/or to celebrate military victories (as by the Romans).
an almond- or womb-shaped area in which a sacred figure, such as Christ in Heaven, is represented.
radiating chapel
small, semi-circular chapels arranged around the apse end of a basilican plan.
compound pier
typically found in a Romanesque or Gothic church, a pier or large column with multiple shafts, plasters, or colonnettes attached to it on one or all sides.
the triangular wall enclosed by the raking cornices of the pediment and the horizontal cornice of the entablature beneath.
a column, pier, or post found at the center of a large portal or doorway, supporting the lintel.
the horizontal beam covering a door or window opening, or spanning the interval between two columns or piers.
Cistercian Order
monks of a Roman Catholic religious order founded (1098) by St. Robert, abbot of Molesme, in Cîteaux , France. They reacted against Cluniac departures from the Rule of St. Benedict. The particular stamp of the Cistercians stems from the abbacy (c.1109­1134) of St. Stephen Harding. The black habit of the Benedictines was changed to unbleached white and the Cistercians became known as White Monks. St. Bernard of Clairvaux is often regarded as their "second founder." Through a return to strict asceticism and a life of poverty, the Cistercians sought to recover the ideals of the original Benedictines.
a decorative motif made up of repeated inverted Vs.
septpartite vaults
a vaulting system that divides two bays into seven parts by the use of ribs.
ribbed vaults
a vault supported by or decorated with diagonal ribs. Also called rib vault.
alternation of support
the sequence of support members is comprised of columns and piers. Typically, two columns, one pier, two columns, one pier.
the arrangement, proportions, and details of any vertical side or face of a building.
the front of a building, esp. an imposing or decorative one. Also, any side of a building facing a public way or space and finished accordingly.
a continuous horizontal band, such as molding, decorating the face of a wall.
the technique in needlework of decorating fabric by stitching designs and figures of colored threads of fine material (such as silk) into another material (such as cotton, wool, leather, or paper). Also: the material produced by this technique.
Battle of Hastings
In 1066, William of Normandy invades England, defeats last Saxon king, Harold II, at Battle of Hastings, crowned William I of England ("the Conqueror").
sexpartite vaults
a vaulting system that divides two bays into six parts by the use of ribs.
corbel tables
a horizontal masonry construction, as a cornice or part of a wall, supported on corbels or on arches supported on corbels.
jamb figure (column figure)
sculptures carved either on the columns that flank the portal of a church, or they are attached to the columns.
rose window
a round window, often made of stained glass, with tracery patterns in the form of wheel spokes. Large, elaborate, and finely crafted, rose winndows are usually a central element of the facade of Gothic cathedrals.
flying buttress
a stone that carries the thrust of the vault to the buttress.
an arcaded element of the interior elevation of a Gothic church, usually found directly below the clerestory and consisting of a series of arched openings. The triforium can be made up of openings from a passageway or gallery, or can be purely decorative device built into the wall.
lancet window
a high, narrow window terminating in a lancet arch which is an arch having a head that is acutely pointed.
the thin stone or wooden bars in a Gothic window, screen, or panel, which create an elaborate decorative matrix or pattern.
the lower part of a wall, differentiated in some way (by a molding or different color) from the upper section. Also, the part of a pedestal between the base and the cornice usually constructed of plain stone without decoration.
a leaflike decorative element found in Gothic architecture, often on pinnacles, gables, and the open surfaces of roofs. A crocket is shaped like an open leaf which gently curves outward, its edges curling up.
Gothic S-curve
A convention of Gothic painting and sculpture, the hip is thrust outward laterally in an exaggerated position, creating a distortion of the spine that resembles a modified S curve. also called a hip-shot position.
Book of Hours
a form of prayer book developed in the 14th cent. from the prayers of clerics appended to the main service. The book of hours served as a devotional work containing various prayers and meditations appropriate to seasons, months, days of the week, and hours of the day.
a painting executed primarily in shades of gray.
opus anglicanum
English work.
one of the garments worn by the clergy and their assistants, choristers, etc., during divine service and on other occasions. Also, one of the garments worn by the celebrant, deacon, and subdeacon during the celebration of the Eucharist.
Christus patiens
the suffering, or dead, Christ on the cross.
historiated crucifix
a crucifix with narrative scenes flanking the corpus.
a painted or carved panel or winged structure placed at the back or behind an altar. Contains religious imagery, often specific to the place of worship for which it was made.
Italian term for the 13th century. 1200-1299.
an Italian term for the 14th c.; 1300-1399.
atmospheric perspective
the illusion of distance is created by gradations of increasingly lighter hues and less defined objects.
from the Italian word meaning "bell tower." Usually, a freestanding structure found near a church entrance.
in painting, the process of creating the illusion of three-dimensionality on a two-dimensional surface by use of light and shade. In sculpture, the process of molding a three-dimensional form out of a malleable substance.
35,000 - 1,500 BCE
Prehistory (neolithic)
6,000 - 1,000 BCE
Egyptian Art & Architecture
Old Kingdom
3,000 - 2,000 BCE
Egyptian Art & Architecture
Middle Kingdom
2,000 - 1,550 BCE
3,000 - 500 BCE
3,000-1,100 BCE
Archaic Greek Art & Architecture:
900-480 BCE
Classical Greek Art & Architecture
450 - 320 BCE
Late Classical & Hellenestic Greek Art & Architecture
400-30 BCE
Etruscan Art and Architecture
700-480 BCE
Roman Republican Art and Architecture
500-27 BCE
Celtic Art
800 BCE-400 CE
Early Roman Imperial Art & Architecture
27 BCE – 180 CE
Late Roman Imperial Art and Architecture
180 CE-395 CE
Late Antique Art and Architecture
200 CE – 500 CE
Early Byzantine Art
527-867 CE
Late Byzantine Art
867-1453 CE
Early Medieval
500-1050 CE
Romanesque Art and Architecture
1050-1200 CE
Gothic Art and Architecture
1140-1500 CE:
Art of the Italian City States
1200- 1350 CE

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