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History of Western Art Exam 2


undefined, object
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central plan
any structure designed with a primary central space surrounded by symmetrical areas on each side.
Corinthian capital
the bell type of capital decorated with volutes and acanthus leaves, invented as a substitute for the Ionic.
a method of creating designs with small colored stone or glass pieces, which are affixed to a cement surface.
a building material developed by the Romans, made primarily from lime, sand, cement, and rubble mixed with water. Concrete is easily poured or molded when wet and hardens into a particularly strong and durable stonelike substance.
barrel vault
an arched structure, usually made of stones, concrete, or bricks, forming a ceiling or roof over a hall, room, or other wholly or partially enclosed construction. Comprised of a series of arches.
groin vault
the intersection of two barrel vaults.
an architectural support, usually consisting of massive masonry built against an exterior wall to brace the wall and counter the thrust of the vaults. Transfers the weight to the ground.
a masonry support made up of many stones, or rubble and concrete, often square or rectangular in plan, and capable of carrying very heavy architectural loads.
a mixture of lime, sand, and other ingredients into a material that can be easily molded or modeled. When dry, produces a very durable surface used for covering walls or for architectural sculpture and decoration.
a rectangular stone coffin, used by ancient Egyptians, Greeks, and Romans, and others. Often decorated with relief sculpture in side panels.
a painting technique in which water-based pigments are applied to a surface of wet plaster. The color is absorbed by the plaster, becoming a permanent part of the wall.
a style in which artists concern themselves with capturing the exterior likeness of an object or person, usually by rendering its visible details in a finely executed, meticulous manner.
a figure used as a symbol or an ornament in the Old World and in America since prehistoric times, consisting of a cross with arms of equal length, each arm having a continuation at right angles.
vegetal motifs
ornamental designs based on the shapes of plants.
hatching lines placed at right angles to form a woven pattern.
Good Shepherd
the representation in art of Jesus with a sheep around his shoulders or at his side, based on the biblical parable of the Good Shepherd.
a niche in a tomb or catacomb in which a sarcophagus was placed.
occurs when a subordinate group molds elements of a dominant culture to fit its own traditions.
a form created when two images (usually paintings on panels or reliefs) are hinged together.
orant (orans)
the representation, usually in ancient or Early Christian art, of a standing figure praying with outstretched arms.
evangelist symbols
Matthew = winged man; Mark = winged Lion; Luke = winged ox; John = eagle.
basilican plan
the floorplan of a meeting hall that is rectangular in form with a roofed hall, the building usually contains an interior colonnade, with an apse at one end or at each end. The central aisle tends to be wide and is higher than the flanking aisles, so that light can penetrate through the clerestory windows.
the long central space of a Christian church, usually rectangular in shape and often separated from the side aisles by colonnades.
the passage or aisle that leads around the apse of a Christian church. Developed for use in pilgrimage churches, an amubulatory usually allows general passage from the nave around to the east end of a church without giving access to the restricted areas of the choir and altar.
blind arcade
an arcade series where the arched openings are closed. An architectural decorative motif often found on the exterior of buildings.
the topmost zone of a wall with windows in a basilica extending above the aisle roofs. Provides direct light into the central interior space.
a large semicircular or polygonal (and usually vaulted) niche protruding from the end wall of an axial building. Also, the eastern end of a Christian church, containing the altar.
the entire arm of a cruciform church, perpendicular to the nave. The transept includes the crossing and often marks the beginning of the apse.
when the focal point of the architectural structure faces east.
when the focal point of the architectural structure faces west.
a semicircular recess, such an apse or niche, with a half-dome vault.
a raised, balconylike platform or passageway running along the exterior wall of a building inside or outside.
the principle interior structure at the center of a Greek or Roman temple within which the cult statue was usually housed.
the concave triangular section of a wall that forms the transition between a square or polygonal space and the circular base of a dome.
in Greek architecture, a sacred or holy enclosure used for worship consisting of one or more temples and an altar. Also: the space around the altar in a church, usually at the east end (and also called the chancel or presbytery).
in the New Testament, manifestation wherein Jesus appeared "shining" before Peter, James, and John. The traditional explanation is that in it Jesus' divine glory shone in his earthly body. Mt. Tabor is usually said to be the mountain where it took place. The event is commemorated in the feast of the Transfiguration on Aug. 6.
a panel painting representing a sacred figure of the Eastern Orthodox Church according to ancient established pictorial conventions.
the banning or destruction of images, especially icons and religious art. Iconoclasm in 8th and 9th century Byzantium and 16th and 17th century Protestant territories arose from differing beliefs about the power, meaning, function, and purpose of imagery in religion.
an arch or lintel built across the upper corners of a square space, allowing a circular or polygonal dome to be more securely set above the walls.
in a work of art, an image (or images) that symbolically illustrates an idea, concept, or principle, often moral or religious.
an enamel technique in which metal wire or strips are affixed to the surface to form the design. The resulting areas (sloisons) are filled with enamel (colored glass).

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