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Paleolithic Art


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When were Neandertals around?
250 kya to 26 kya
List some sites where Neandertal made personal adornmnents have been found.
LG 1948-1962
Grotte du Renne
What is the name for the period where there are Neandertals in the MP?
What is the name for the period where there are Neandertals in the UP?
What is the name for the period where there are NO Neandertals, only AMH?
Explain what Neandertal personal adornment art is like, generally.
Usually something taken from natural world, and modified just slightly. IE: Incised tooth, Slab of flint, etc.
Talk about La Roche-Cotard Mask
-who is it associated with?
-What is it made of?
-Associated with Neandertals
-35 kya
-10 cm tall and wide
-small flint block wedged with sliver of bone and two pebbles
1) Chatelperronian period dates

2) Mousterian dates

3) Aurignacian dates
1) 40-30 kya BP

2) 30-2 kya BP

3) 40-28 kya BP
What do many believe Chatelperronian ornaments are the result of?
a mixture (taphonomy) or scavenging or copying without symbolic dimension.
To what does Randy White argue that the outcompetition of Neandertals is attributed?
they weren't sophisticated symbol users, which he argues contributed to their demise.
List ten features of the Aurignacian Period.
- 40-28 kya BP
- new stone, bone, antler, ivory techniques
-social organization
-long-distance exchange
-painted, engraved, sculpted images
-regional variation
-creative revolution
-symbolic aspects
On what are geometric patterns created in the Aurignacian?
-bone, antler and ivory fragments.
What does the geometric use in the Aurigancian period often depict? How are these forms made?
2D animal profiles, outlines made by pecking. NO BURINS...
Give an example of a 2D engraving from the Aurignacian period (relates to geometry)
Horse from Abri Blanchard on limestone block created with very sharp tools (leaves 'v-shaped' incision.
In what countries do we find 3-D sculpture and Bas-Relief in the Aurignacian?
Belgium, Western Germany, Austria.
What materials did artists in the Aurignacian use to create 3D and Bas-Relief images?
Dried mammoth tusk
What types of figures are depicted in 3D or Bas-Relief in the Aurignacia
Zoomorphic, Anthropomorphic and therianthropic (cross between the 2)
Is there a connection between the animals depicted in the Aurignacian in 3D/Bas-Relief and the faunal assemblage?
No, there is no connection.
How were 3D images in the Aurignacian period made? (talk about techniques of manufacture)
By splitting and wedging mammoth ivory; scraped, gouged, incised, grinded and polished.
Give examples of sculpted and polished mammoth ivory pendant from the Aurignacian.
Mammoth and Horse pendants from Vogelherd, Germany.
What did they find from Holenstein-Stadel, Germany?
A 28 cm figurine made from mammoth ivory depicting a Human Female/Lioness Hybrid.
Where was the 28cm mammoth ivory Human figurine/lioness hybrid found? What period is it from?
In Holenstein-Stadel, Germany. It is from the Aurignacian period.
talk about the supposed 'seashells' from the Aurignacian.
These are not real shells, but rather shell replicas made from ivory or soapstone which were perforated and worn.
Give an example of surface preparation.
Grotte Chauvet
Why is Grotte Chauvet important/unusual?
Ie: When was it found, are the animals depicted here common, what kind of things did they find?
-discovered in 1994
-many animals depicted here not seen elsewhere
-human and animal footprints
-torches,tools,paint preparation
What time period do most of the paintings in Chauvet date to?
Most are from the Aurignacian period 30 kya (C14 dating)
** So old and complex at this time period unexpected...
In Chauvet the images near the entry are in what colour, versus the images in the back?
In the entry images are in red, while in the back, images are in black.
What is unique about the surface of the walls at Chauvet?
It appears they were prepared before cave images were painted.
What is the Pointillist Bision?
From Chauvet
-created by painting dots applied to the wall with one's hands.
What is the Panel of Horses?
From Chauvet
-used contours of walls
-may rep. moments in one individual horse's life or perhaps evolution of horses in general?
What are the Woolly Rhinos?
Found in Chauvet
-2 males facing off
-charcoal dating using C14
-32,400 BP
talk about the OWL found at Chauvet
-Finger drawing (spontenaity and skill)
-clear impression of feathers, beak, eyes.
-located at entrance to 2 galleries that go deep into the recesses of cave. "night-bird"
Where is the IBEX found?
From Chauvet
Where is the "Great Horse Panel" found? How is it made?
Chauvet - made with scraping tools and fingers
What sorts of things were worn as personal ornaments?
-Heina carnassial (perforated)
-Human molar (perforated)
-Wolf canine (incised base)
-Deer canine (perforated)
-8 basket-shaped beads: 2 talc, 6 ivory
What is the flute (or one of the flutes) found at Isturitz made out of?
It's a vulture ulna. - 4-holed flute
What are Randy White's views on Personal ornaments/music?
-they give us an idea about society, economy, prestige items.
-Cosmology re bird bones and wind instruments..???
Where there Neandertals in the Gravettian? What are the dates for this period?
There were no Neandertals, only AMH.
-dates: 28-22 kya
What are some of the features of paleolithic art in the Gravettian?
-wider diversity
-greater elaboration of geometric signs and overmarking
-animal subjects dominate
In what period are there hundreds of human representations in terms of sculptures (usually pregnant females)
In the Gravettian
There are a large number of hand prints found from the Gravettian period. Give an example of a cave site where there are many hand prints.
Where is the "Woman with Horn" found?
What period is she associated with?
-Found in Laussel
Les Deux Personnages/Playing Card Figure
-20 cm
La Dame a la Capuche/WomanwHood
-When discovered?
-Made out of what?
-What is it?
-Why important?
-Brassempouy, France
-From "Grotte de Pape"
-Found in 1892
-sculpted in ivory
-front and profile view of human head
-one of few reps of human face
-3 cm approx...
How was 2D engraving in the Gravettian made?
-with flint burin well
Give an example of a 2D Gravettian engraving.
-engraved woolly mammoth tusk (?) from Grotte de Cussace, Dordogne, France
(human skeletons found at panel base...1 dates to 25 kya BP)
List some examples of Gravettian Painted cave sites
-Pech-Merle (hands)
-Gargas (mutilated hands)
-Cosquer (hands)
-Chauvet (some- minority...)
Where are hand silhouttes from Gravettian usually found?
-deep within caves
What is the instrument found at Pair-non-Pair?
-It is a multi-holed bird bone flute
-12.7 cm
What is an example (possibly) of an Aurignacian A.M.S. (Artificial Memory System)
-tally (hunting) sticks

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