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Art History Terms


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City Beautiful Movement
The City Beautiful movement was a Progressive reform movement in North American architecture and urban planning that flourished in the 1890s and 1900s with the intent of using beautification and monumental grandeur in cities to counteract the perceived moral decay of poverty-stricken urban environments. The movement, which was originally most closely associated with Chicago, Detroit, and Washington, D.C., did not seek beauty for its own sake, but rather as a social control device for creating moral and civic virtue among urban populations.[1] Advocates of the movement believed that such beautification could thus provide a harmonious social order that would improve the lives of the inner-city poor.
The adjective form is used in English, to refer to people or works that are experimental or innovative, particularly with respect to art, culture, and politics.
mansard roof
a hip roof, each face of which has a steeper lower part and a shallower upper part
curtain wall
Curtain wall is a term used to describe a building façade which does not carry any dead load from the building other than its own dead load. These loads are transferred to the main building structure through connections at floors or columns of the building. A curtain wall is designed to resist air and water infiltration, wind forces acting on the building, seismic forces, and its own dead load forces.
International Style
The International style was a major architectural style of the 1920s and 1930s. The term usually refers to the buildings and architects of the formative decades of Modernism, before World War II. The term had its origin from the name of a book by Henry-Russell Hitchcock and Philip Johnson written to record the International Exhibition of Modern Architecture held at the Museum of Modern Art in New York City in 1932 which identified, categorised and expanded upon characteristics common to Modernism across the world. As a result, the focus was more on the stylistic aspects of Modernism. Hitchcock's and Johnson's aims were to define a style of the time, which would encapsulate this modern architecture. They identified three different principles: the expression of volume rather than mass, balance rather than preconceived symmetry and the expulsion of applied ornament. All the works which were displayed as part of the exhibition were carefully selected, as only works which strictly followed the set of rules were displayed.[1] Previous uses of the term in the same context can be attributed to Walter Gropius in Internationale Architektur, and Ludwig Hilberseimer in Internationale neue Baukunst.
a technique used by Neo-Impressionists such as Georges Seurat (1859-1891). The technique involves breaking color into its basic elements, painting in very small and regular dots. From a distance the multiple dots form an optical mixture of color. The best known example is Seurat's Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte (1884-1886).
Installation art, art that, through the use of sculptural materials and other media, seeks to modify the way we experience a particular space. Ex: Duchamps Fountain.
Everything has meaning, emotion. Ex: Matisse
Filippo Marinetti
Filippo Tommaso Emilio Marinetti (December 22, 1876 - December 2, 1944) was an Italian ideologue, poet, editor, and main founder of the futurist movement of the early 20th century.
Pointillism is a style of painting in which small distinct points of primary colors create the impression of a wide selection of secondary and intermediate colors.
The wandering Jew?
A cantilever is a beam supported on only one end. The beam carries the load to the support where it is resisted by moment and shear stress. Cantilever construction allows for overhanging structures without external bracing. Cantilevers can also be constructed with trusses or slabs.
Salon d'Automne
In 1903, the first Salon d'Automne (Autumn Salon) was organized by Georges Rouault, André Derain, Henri Matisse and Albert Marquet as a reaction to the conservative policies of the official Paris Salon. The exhibition almost immediately became the showpiece of developments and innovations in 20th century painting and sculpture.
Baron Georges-Eugene Haussmann
Georges-Eugène Haussmann (March 27, 1809 - January 11, 1891), who called himself Baron Haussmann, was a French civic planner whose name is associated with the rebuilding of Paris. He was born in Paris to a Protestant family from Alsace.
Pilotis or piers, are supports such as columns, pillars, stilts, by which a building is lifted above what is underneath, whether it is ground or water. They are traditionally found in stilt and pole dwellings such as fishermen's huts in Asia and Sweden[1] using wood and in elevated houses such as Old Queenslanders in Australia's tropical Northern state, though they are in this case classified as "stumps".
Art Nouveau
international movement[2] and style of art, architecture and applied art—especially the decorative arts—that peaked in popularity at the turn of the 20th century (1890-1905).[3] A reaction to academic art of the 19th century, it is characterized by organic, especially floral and other plant-inspired motifs, as well as highly-stylized, flowing curvilinear forms.[4]
an artistic and architectural movement in Russia from 1919 onward which rejected the idea of "art for arts sake" in favour of art as a practice directed towards social purposes. Constructivism as an active force lasted until around 1934, having a great deal of effect on developments in the art of the Weimar Republic and elsewhere, before being replaced by Socialist Realism. Its motifs have sporadically recurred in other art movements since.
en plein air
En plein air is a French expression which means "in the open air", and is particularly used to describe the act of painting outdoors.
Comte de Saint-Simon
pro-women, ex: Plowing of Nivernais
analytic cubism
Analytic Cubism, was both radical and influential as a short but highly significant art movement between 1908 and 1911 in France.
synthetic cubism
the movement spread and remained vital until around 1919, when the Surrealist movement gained popularity.
Cloissonism as a technique of painting was first properly seen in the works of Anquetin_Louis and Emile Bernard at the exhibition organised by Vincent van Gogh in November 1887 at the Grand Restaurant-Bouillon, Paris. The name derives from the French verb to partition, referring to the bold outlines of simplified forms enclosing bright flat areas of colour that was the hall mark of this mode of painting. There was also a symbolic use of colour and the orchestration of these areas in an harmonious and rhythmic way across the canvas.
a philosophical system elaborated from the 1830s by the French thinker Auguste Comte (1798-1857), recognizing only observable phenomena and empirically verifiable scientific facts and laws, and rejecting inquiry into ultimate causes or origins as belonging to outmoded metaphysical or theological stages of thought; a humanistic religion based on this system
Andre Breton
André Breton (in French pronounced [ɑ̃dʀe bʀəˈtɔ̃]) (February 19, 1896 - September 28, 1966) was a French writer, poet, and surrealist theorist, and is best known as the main founder of surrealism. His writings include the Surrealist Manifesto of 1924, in which he defined surrealism as pure psychic automatism.
The works feature the element of surprise, unexpected juxtapositions and non sequitur, however many Surrealist artists and writers regard their work as an expression of the philosophical movement first and foremost with the works being an artifact, and leader André Breton was explicit in his assertion that Surrealism was above all a revolutionary movement. From the Dada activities of World War I Surrealism was formed with the most important center of the movement in Paris and from the 1920s spreading around the globe, eventually affecting films such as Angel's Egg and El Topo, amongst others. ex: dali and Oppenheim
Amory Show
"International Exhibition of Modern Art" that opened in New York City's 69th Regiment Armory, on Lexington Avenue between 25th and 26th Streets, on February 17, 1913, ran to March 15, and became a legendary watershed date in the history of American art, introducing astonished New Yorkers, accustomed to realistic art, to modern art. The show served as a catalyst for American artists, who became more independent and created their own "artistic language".
The Little Galleries of the Photo-Secession (later known as 291) was a tiny fine art photography gallery in New York City created and run by Alfred Stieglitz and Edward Steichen from November 1905 to 1917.
a public declaration of principles and intentions, often political in nature, but may also be life stance related. However, manifestos relating to religious belief are rather referred to as credo.
It is a trend of thought that affirms the power of human beings to create, improve, and reshape their environment, with the aid of scientific knowledge, technology or practical experimentation
same as cloissonism
a separable component, frequently one that is interchangeable with others, for assembly into units of differing size, complexity, or function.
Symbolism is the applied use of symbols: iconic representations that carry particular conventional meanings. Ex: The Apparition
to manufacture in standardized parts or sections ready for quick assembly and erection, as buildings.
Der Blaue Reiter
a German movement lasting from 1911 to 1914, fundamental to Expressionism, along with Die Brücke which was founded the previous decade in 1905. Wassily Kandinsky, Franz Marc, August Macke, Alexej von Jawlensky, Marianne von Werefkin, Lyonel Feininger, Albert Bloch and others founded the group in response to the rejection of Kandinsky's painting Last Judgement from an exhibition. Der Blaue Reiter lacked a central artistic manifesto, but was centred around Kandinsky and Marc. Artists Gabriele Münter and Paul Klee were also involved. The Blue Rider. Spiritual Truths through art
Togetherness of art/work. ?

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