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History - The Mughal Empire from AD 1526 to Ad 1556


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What was the political condition of india on the eve of Babur's invasion?
India was in a state of political and social disunity. There were a large number of iindependent kingdoms without any central power to keep them together.
Before he came to Inida Where was Babur ruling?
Babur was the ruler of Farghana in Central Asia.
Who invited Babur to invade India ?
Daulat Khan Lodi invited Babur to invade India and help him overthrow Ibrahim Lodhi, in 1524 AD.
1526 AD
First Battle of Panipat
Who fought the First Battle of Panipat?
Babur and Ibrahim Lodhi.
What was one of the main reasons of Babur's victory in the first battle of Panipat.
With his superior technique and flawless startegy Babur defeated the huge Lodhi army with his limited resources.
Who were the two major enemies of Babur after the First battle of Panipat?
Rana Sanga of Mewar

Nusrat Shah the ruler of Bengal and the leader of the Afghan chiefs.
1527 AD
Battle of Khanua
Who fought the battle of Khanua?
Babur and Rana Sanga of Mewar.
1529 AD
Battle of Ghagra
Who fought the battle of Ghagra?
Babur and the combined forces of the Afghans and the Sultan of Bengal.
What was the extent of Babur's empire ?
From Indus in the west to Bihar in the east and the Himalayas in the North to Gwalior in the south.
State some of Babur's qualities
Fluent in both Persianand Arabic.

Accomplished poet and musician.

Loved gardens, nature, hills and villages.

great leader of men and a good general.
Name the memoirs of Babur.
Tuzuk-i-Baburi or Babur Nama
Memoirs of Babur
Who suceeded Babur?
What were the difficulties faced by Humayun?
Humayun had to consolidate his fatehr's empire and set up an administrative structure.

His brother were given territories bu they created many problems for him.

Bahadur Shah of Gujarat had greatly increased his powers.

Sher Shah, an ambitious and able general had emerged as the leader of all Afghans.
1539 AD
Battle of Chausa
Who fought at the battle of Chausa?
Humyun was defeated at the hands of Sher Shah.
Who saved Humayun from drowning?
Nizam , a water carrier.
1540 AD
Battle of Kanauj
Who fought the Battle of Kanuaj?
Humayaun was defeated at the hands of Sher Shah.
When did Humayun reconquer North India?
1555 AD
Name a book which gives information on Sher Shah.
Taraq-i-Shershahi by Abbas Sherwani
State the important points of Sher SHah's administration
The empire was divided into provinces, each divided into parganas.
State some imporatnt points about Sher Shah's army.
He had a large standing army.

The cavalry, infantry and artillery were disciplined and trained.

He branded all horses and cattle.

He expected all his nobles to keep the required number of soldies and pay them well.
State some important points about the roads and Sarais during Shar Shah' reign.
On every road after every 2 kos there was a sarai. Provision was made for water, beds, food and grain for the horses.

Villages were set up all around the sarais.

Fruit bearing trees were planted on both sides of the highway.

In every sarai two horses were kept to carry news.

He built an excellent network of roads. The Grand Trunk Road was the longest road and it connected Sonargaon in Bengal to Peshwar in the North-West.

To protect the roads from thieves and highway robbers he made the headman or muqaddam to produce the culprits.
State some important points of Sher Shah's revenue system.
Land was surveyed and measured.

Average produce was calculated on its fertility. One third of this was paid as tax in cash or kind.

Taxes were reduced and loans were granted.

New weights and measures introduced.

He introduced a new coin called the rupia.
Name a structure bult by Sher Shah.
Purana Qula by Sher Shah.
I am the brother of Humayun who was in Kabul.

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