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Medicinal Botany 1


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Prehistoric times
accidental earliest record is 4,000 year old, sumerian tablets
Ancient Egypt
-very knowledgeable/ respected and specialized physicians -Ebers (700 magical formulas) -Edwin Smith papyrus (1700 BC but based on 2640 BC info)
Ancient China
Pun-tsao pharmacopoeia/ Shen-nung (Ephedra 4500 years ago)
Ancient India
Rig-Veda (Ayurvedic medicine) use of snakeroot
Western Medicine
Foundation is Greek Hippocrates (460-377 BC) Theophratus (Father of Botany) Dioscorides (1st AD) De Materia Medica Physician Galen (2nd AD)
After Fall of Rome
-very little knowledge added -de materia medica is main source -Arab world continued -Western knowledge is preserved in monasteries Bagdad- first drug store Moslems invade Europe and passed on knowledge Avicenna/Persia (980-1037 AD) Medical authority until 17th century
Age of Herbals
15th century= (new medical learning)+ (printing press) herbals= beautiful/ when & what to use/ medical & culinary use/ superstitions Doctrine of Signatures
Doctrine of Signatures
Developed independently in many cultures Mnemonic?
Early Doctors
-were also botanists 18th century dichotomy occurs: herbalism & scientific botany
William Withering
researched folk remedies (1775-1785) and set standard for pharmaceutical chemistry.
1806 derived morphine from opium poppies--> first compound isolation.
Synthetics drug use
Began in the mid 19th century Now 25% US drugs contain plants and 50% contain fungal compounds.
Complementary and Alternative Medicine \"Dietary Supplements\" according to the FDA
plant and plant extracts
Dietary Supplement Health Education Act of 1994
They were not subject to the same sort of testing as medicines but could be investigated if proven harmful.
__ percent of people rely on herbals in ___ countries
Medical Approaches around the world
Chine: uses a blend of accupunture, herbs and Western Medicine. India:Seperation of Western medicine (which is usually too expensive) and traditional system.
Effects of Western Medicine on rain forest cultures
-Erosion of tribal cultures -destruction of rainforest
Wart remover
Malaria treatment
Quinine, derived from the bark of the cinchona tree.

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