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Type of immune system response which depends on T cells.
Cell Mediated response
In AIDS, the helper T cell levels drop to what number?
almost zero
Type of immune response that depends on B cell system?
What system is activated during humoral immune response?
complement system
What system is the antibody response occur?
complement system
What are the 3 chemical mediators released to cause vasodilation?
bradykinins, prostaglandins, histamines
Why does pain result during inflammation?
edema and effects of histamine and bradykinin on nerve endings
What is a type of exaggerated immune response?
Hypersensitivity reaction
What are some of the symptoms of a hypersensitive allergic reaction?
rhinitis, wheezing, red/teary eyes
What antibodies attach to the mast cells?
What cell is formed upon first exposure to antigen?
mast cell
What is released upon the 2nd exposure to an antigen (if allergic)?
histamine, bradykinin, prostaglandins
What receptors on cells are ready for activation?
H1 receptors
Increased or decreased BP with cardiac response to allergic reaction?
What 2 things happen in GI tract upon allergic reaction?
smooth muscle contarction and incrased parietal cell secretion
Name the indications for use of antihistamines for allergic reaction. (5)
Allergic rhinitis, conjunctivitis, uritcaria, angioedema (submucosal swellin in the hands, face and feet), adjunctive therapy in anaphylaxis
What are some additional clinical uses for antihistamines?
nausea/vomitting, motion sickness, vertigo, pre-op sedation, prophylactic to prevent transfusion reactions, sleep aid, parkinsons, tx of side effects of antipsychotic medications
Name the major adverse effects of antihistamines (6)
CNS depression results in sedation; loss of appetite, nausea and vomitting, constipation, diarrhea, anticholinergic
If patient has a weak cough, should they take antihistamines and why/why not?
NO! B/c a lung diseased patient will worsen; wheeze, dried up secretions are not able to be coughed up.
What are the 3 basic types of interactions that occur with antihistamines?
-Additive/cumulative effect
-Antihistamines may block or reverse the effects of another drug
-antihistamines may mask the toxic sympoms of another drug or infection
What effect do antihistamines have on children?
cause excitability
How are most antihistamines administered?
IM- Z track
2 antihistamines replaced by Allegra and why?
asystemizole (Hismanal)
terfenadine (Seldane)
b/c they cause serious interactions with Erythromycin (cardiac arrythmias)
Name the 4 long acting antihistamines that produce less CNS effects(do not cause sedation)
Hismanal, Seldane, Allegra, and Claritin

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