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Broadcasting Final


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nielsen's method if providing network tv ratings
home sample (which mirrors the demographic makeup of the audience) to determine what ppl are watching
people-meter records when the tv is on, who's watching, how long, what show, when, etc
sample size for nielsen's national tv ratings
problems with measurement (nielsen)
not very reliable b/c ppl wouldn't 100% of the time press their button with their name on it
some old and young ppl may be intimidated by the technology
it doesn't count what shows you watch at other locations
people go off to college, etc
sports is underrepresented because ppl watch it at bars a lot
hispanics underrepresented because they are growing too quickly for nielsen to keep up
dvr not taken into account yet
privacy issue raised by future passive tv meters with image-recognition devices
people are "watching" you
if you change your appearance
the number of households whose tv sets are tuned to a particular program or network (vs all household with tv in the country)
ratings in 2004
109.6 million tv households in the country, so 1 ratings point is 1,096,000 households watching
audience share
percentage of sets that were ON and tuned to a given program or network
difference between ratings and audience share
ratings is out of all tv households
audience share is out of tv households that were watching tv at that moment
how networks are affected by ratings
financial structure depends on ratings: bad rating=bad ads, show gets cancelled really quickly
failure rate of new series
extremely high
approx 80%
sweeps (and when)
the time when a station guages who's watching and can set ad rates from this
not a reflection of typical viewing
trying to make a good impression and special programs

nov, feb, may usually 3 weeks long
tactics for boosting viewership during sweeps
made-for-tv movies
first-time on tv movies
big name guests on regualr series
special story lines: marriage, birth, death, etc
live concerts
variety shows
role of studios in program-making and how shows end up with network slots
studios only make money on long-lasting shows
studios make shows for different channels just to see what will pick it up
if a network likes the pilot episode enough, then they may demand to have more made (but they rarely order a full season)
leading studios
warner bros--time warner
20th century--fox
shows not sold to the network affiliated with the studio
touchstone: scrubs--nbc, kevin hill--upn
20th century: reba--wb, yes, dear--cbs
first-run syndication
made and then immediately sold individually to station groups or independent stations (to air outside primetime)
program-making costs
120 pilots made each yr and only 1/4 make it on the air
trend toward greater network involvement in program-making
networks are complaining that they are the ones that make a show a hit yet the studios are getting all of the money
networks continually air shows made "in house"--they have a relationship/affiliation with the show/studio
highest paid character on tv
$1.6 mill/episode for the last 2 seasons with 21-22 episodes/yr
that 70's show--salaries
ashton and topher had new deals
paid a lot for being an ensemble cast with a lot of stars
alias salary
jennifer signed a new deal which is a big increase for such a mild hit
west wing cost
$6 mill/episode
ratings plummeted last yr
the practice cost
got rid of many stars because of money: abc renewed the series for half of what they previously paid so ppl got fired
30 sec ad in friends finale
$2 mill
highest amount of product placement in a comedy
the king of queens last season
2,497 incidents (>100 per episode)
number one product placement
american idol
off-net syndication (and time slot)
about 100 episodes needed to begin doing this (approx 4 seasons)
comedies do better in off-net syn
biggest time slot for this is before and after the news
7-8 pm
access time slot
fcc demanded this hr be given back to other stations
5-6 pm
finge time slot
success of syndication
a show must reach minimum 70% of household in the US to attract enough ads to work
hitting syndication this fall
malcom in the middle
yes, dear
king of queens
barter time (syndication sales deals)
studio demands a set amount of $ and then 1 minute of ad time to seel to someone else for more $
second-cycle syndication
fee is lower than 1st package fee
cable networks have been bidding for shows recently
highest amount a cable network paid for a syndicated show
tnn bought csi for $1.6 mill/episode
game shows--first run syndication
wheel of fortune
talk shows--first run syn
casualties are high for talk shows (last yr only ellen was successful)
dr. phil
regis and kelly
infotainment--first run syn
inside edition
entertainment tonight
fiction--first run syn
she spies
off-cable syndication
originally aired on cable
uncommon, but rising in popularity
IE sex and the city (hbo then tbs)
the real world (mtv then abc)
baseball playoffs on fox
31 mill ppl watched game 7 of the world series
biggest audience for baseball since 2001
and biggest audience in league championship series since the 80s
miss america
abc is not renewing the deal
will prolly end up on cable
it was expensive and the ratings were sinking
off syndication
were originally sundicated, then successful and sold packages of reruns later
IE baywatch, xenia
concept of lead-in
wants to hold onto and build onto audience of show before it
successful show may get cancelled because it's leadin audience is small and doesn't transfer over
problems with lead-in
unrealistic expectations to expect a brand new show to hold the entire audience from a long-running giant hit show that's airing before it
takinng a successful show and making it the anchor for the night
IE: survivor moved to compete against Friends, CSI moved to 9 pm mid-season (risky), the OC moved to 8 pm on thurs (against survivor)
2 established shows on both sides of a new show
IE coupling at 9:30 thurs b/t will and grace and ER
listen up b/t still standing and raymond
you decide to put on something that appeals to a completely different audience than what is showing on other channels
IE on superbowl sunday Bravo shows queer eye marathon and WB shows charmed
running over the normal time table
IE football often runs over--good thing b/c when you switch to watch your show, you see something before it and you must wait for your show while watching that
bad thing b/c most ppl will just change the channel (they don't care)
theme scheduling
trying to put thematically-similar shows back-to-back
IE buffy then Angel (buffy spinoff)
ads, promos, anything besides regular program minutes
prime-time for 4 big networks in 2003: avg 17 min of clutter/hr
risen by 8% since 2000 and 36% since 1994
ave commercial break length=3 min
most clutter-filled network
54.6 min of clutter during 3 hr primetime
avg running time for a drama
41-42 min/hr
avg running time for comedy
21-22 min/30 min
running some programs without interruption
catches ppl's attention
first episode
special movies
IE...season premiere of 24 last yr--sponsor message at the beg and end (6 min film 3 1/2 before and 3 1/2 after)
...Alias debut in 2001--69 min long w/o commercials, nokia announcement at beg and product placement
national categories of advertising
broadcast ntwrk
ntnl syndication
broadcast ads
on one or more of terrestrail ntwrks
cable ads
on cable networks
ntnl syndication ads
on ntnl syndicated shows
local--categories of advertising
local spot
ntnl spot
local spot ads
ads sold to individual stations to target a local area
ntnl spot ads
reaching ntnl audience by going thru local stations instead of thru networks
late sping/early summer
up to 80% of ad time is sold during this period for the upcoming season/yr
broadcast: $9 bill of ads sold during this prd (went down by $.3 bill from 2003 which shows that advertisers are either waiting to see how the season shapes up OR moving to cable)
upn upfront
best this yr compared to previous yrs
advertisers were excited about kevin hill and america's next top model
$350 mill worth of ad time (40% better than last yr)
nbc upfront
$2.9 bill
biggest of any ntwrk
cbs upfront
$2.4 bill
($200 mill better than last yr)
fox upfront
$1.6 bill
abc upfront
$1.5 bill (down $200 mill)
note: when they give figures like this, they include sports ads whereas no other ntwrk dows, so this $1.5 bill is without that factored in
wb upfront
$675 mill
(down from $700 mill last yr)
cable ntwrks upfront combined
20% more worth of ads sold
$6.4 bill for ad time (compared to $9 bill for broadcast)
scatter marker
ad time sold later in the season
2 shows which did better than expected (30 sec ads)
desperate housewives:
make good
when a show underperforms, the station must show the ad enough times to make up for it
highest show to advertise on
$473,000 for 30 sec
highest syndicated show to advertise on
$209,000 30 sec
night of the week where ad rates are the highest
the advertisers want you to get the ad right before the weekend (vehicles, movies, etc)
2nd costliest to advertise on
abc in feb
$1.5 mill 30 sec ad
more women than men
43.5 mill viewers
nbc sold $1 bill in ads
after they started, ads went for $750,000 for 30 sec
friends finale
record for sitcom
$2 mill 30 sec ad slot
record before this...1998: sienfeld $1.7 mill
virtual ads
blue screen behind the batter in baseball or on the sides of soccer, football, etc games
old show that they are bringing back
kaiser family foundation research
53% of parents are concerned about the violence their children see on tv
63% would like to see regulations to reduce violence in early evening
percentage of children that watch tv without any restrictions
1996 telecommunication law
each tv set must have a v chip if 13" or larger
since 2000
also gave tv industry 1 year to come up with a voluntary ratings system for programming
1996 rating system
based on movie ratings
parents and lawmakers not happy with this
TVPG-parental guidance
TV14-14 and up
TVY7-children 7 and up
up to networks to decide what rating their shows get
ratings created later
fv-fantasy violence
nbc originally refused to any of the ratings
cnn financial news
shutting down this december
lack of coverage
30/110 mill tv households
parents tv council study
8-9 pm 2000-2001
jokes routine on tv: (oral sex, homosexuality, etc) up 78% compared to 2 yrs before
includes coarse language (not damn, hell, etc which are too common place and accepted to count)
primetime 02-03 8-9 pm: profanity up 95% compared to 98 (9-10 up 109%)
national tv violence study set-up
broadest, most substantial study
over 3 years (94-97)
4 different universities
>10,000 hours of tv viewed
23 different ntwrks
6 am-11 pm 7 days/wk
composite week--mon one week, tues the next, web the next, etc etc (fair reflection over 7 weeks)
ntnl tv violence study results
remarkably little change in the amount of violence on tv during the 3 yrs
yr 1: 58% of program had violence
yr 2: 61%
yr 3: 61%
primetime (broadcast)...
yr 1: 53%
yr 2: 63%
yr 3: 67%
primetime (cable)...
yr 1: 54%
yr 2: 63%
yr 3: 64%

71% of violent scenes contain no signs of remorse and no penalty for the violence
?50% of all violence showed victim suffering no physical harm
indiana u study
ntwrk programs contain avg. 37 acts of violence per program
definition of violence included verbal violence (threats and insults)
fewest tv viewers on which nights
friday and sat
most watched night
sunday (thurs is second)
father of the pride
sexual innuendos
promoted orignially as "family programming"
ironic because the studio that makes this got a grant from family friendly advertisers
the grant was withdrawn because of this show
24 episodes
3.9 mill viewers/wek (mtv's #1 show b/f the osbournes)
cancelled b/c of criticisms over ppl getting injured imitating the show
02: movie--#1 first week
$64 mill in the US
9/11 influence on tv news
it used to be light and fluffy, but after 9/11, we realized that our news had not been doing us good before because we had no idea what was going on in the world
most common story format
anchor voiceover with average length of 29 sec
67% of stories were a min or shorter
40% were 30 sec or shorter
most covered topic area
25% on everyday crime like shootings, robberies
2nd most popular category/topic
human interest 10%
3rd most covered topic
defense/foreign policy
social issues
4th most common topic
economic news
5th most covered category
austin, texas tv station
adopted a series of questions to ask about each crime aired on the news:
1)threat to public safety?
2)threat to children?
3)viewer need to take action?
4)significant community impact?
5)part of crime prevention effort?
these 5 questions help them decide which crimes to put on tv--would most likely cut down on a lot of crime on the news
sweeps on tv news
IE perverts in the park
hidden camera in men's room at the park and showed graphic oral sex
fined by the fcc
transmits a signal at twice the resolution of a standard analog signal (525)
1080 lines/screen is most common format
wider screen format--analog=4:8, hdtv=16:9 (more elongated)
better color
crisper audio
sharper image
fcc timetable for conversion to hdtv
15 years
gave broadcasters an extra slice of the spectrum to transmit a second signal (analog and hdtv signals)
by 15 yrs, the broadcasters must give the analog stations to the govnt to auction off for revenue
until dec, 2006, broadcasters can simulcast both signals
problem with hdtv conversion
all commercial stations should ahve had all their stations on the hd air by now but they don't
it's expensive
most stations did not meet the specific deadlines thus far
stations offering hdtv now
1,344 stations in the US are broadcasting digital
almost everyone in america can pick up at least 1 digital signal
88% of US households can pick up 5 or more digital signals
69% get 8 or more
cost of hdtv
98: $5,000-$10,000
04: $1400
$75-$100 bill for all americans to go out and buy an hdtv
stations with hi def
1998: cbs, abc, pbs
1999: bnc
2004: fox
cbs carried the torch for hdtv
in 2002, hi-def programming went up by 50% from 2001
csi:NY cut-in
cbs angered affiliates by cutting into CSI: NY for a news report and then never returned to the show
he was fired
saving private ryan
scared to show it on veteran's day b/c of the language and violence
65 of abc's affiliates chose not to show the uncut version of the movie
plug n play
hdtv manufacturers and cable companies came to a deal...
manufacturers could build in technology that would prevent needing a cable box
pioneering network on hi-def
carries mostly sports
launched in 2001
spinoff in 2003: hdnetmovies
stations with hi def networks
hbo, shotime, encore, starz, discovery, tnt, espn, bravo
hi-def satellite service
39 hi-def networks in addition to standard stations
use bit of digital spectrum and sending out multiple standard digital signals vs. just one hi-def signal
digital compression technology
provides many opportunities for local broadcasters
multi-casting pros and cons for viewer
pos: more digital channels IE more sports shown during NCAA tourney or olympics
neg: get nothing for free, fcc more strict on cable channels, more standard-def vs. hi-def
grand alliance
research groups worked together to come up with one industry standard for hdtv
what the computer industry wanted for hdtv
progressive signal system
transmits entire signal at once, but only capable of 720 lines
what tv industry wanted for hdtv
interlaced system
divides signal into stripes
half stripes sent immediately and the other half a 30th of a second later
hdtv standard
1080 lines
hdtv began broadcasting when
july 1996
personal video recorder
digital video recorder
first station to transmit hi-def signal
WRAL in N.C.
prob with dvr for advertisers
ppl may fastforward thru ads and cause cheaper shows, more product placement, mini ads, etc
blashpemous use of the name God
usually ignored by the FCC
showing or describing sex in an offensive way that is not of artistic, literary, political, scientific value
language or material that depicts or describes offensive sexual or excretory activites of organs
leads to many fines
band on indecent broadcasts from 6 am to 10 pm
sets ground rules, ensures orderly development of the industry, and provides oversight
indecency penalties
fined up to $500,000 per incident or $3 mill/day
up to $27,500 max right now
fcc could also revoke liscense after just one offense
any use of the F word is in violation of indecency
howard stern
infiniti let his fines accumulate
didn't pay them
$1.7 "voluntary contribution" to the US Treasury to make the complaints (going back to 87) go away
you can get fined after something, but no before-the-fact censorship
show airs in a 2nd window
IE life as we know it on mtv
returning series gained most viewers
one tree hill
started slowly and lowkey
returning series lost most viewers
8 simple rules
ratings were huge right after he died so compared to that, they're very low now
handheld XM receivers
independent federal agency responsible for cable, radio
also responsible for telephones, satellites, etc
fcc positions
5 positions
5 yr terms
no more than 3 from one party (the one party with more is the party which is in the white house)
current fcc chair
michael powell
colin powell's son
chair since age 37
he appoints the 5 commissioners
didn't want an excess of rule-making
didn't want to give out an exact list of bad words/scenarios etc
he wanted to be able to take context into account for things
4 other fcc commissioners
tend to be lawyers
FCC bureaus
wireless telecommunications
consumer and governmental affairs
fcc budget
$280 mill
civil servants
fcc employers who aren't commissioners
fcc can...
1)issue a cease and desist order
2)fine station up to $25,000/day for each seperate ciolation up to $150,000
3)put a station's renewal on notice (short-term renewal)
4)take a station's liscence away
US as #1 global tv seller
america sells more tv programming than anyone else anywhere
about $2.5 bill worth/yr
2/3 of entire sales market
get about 1/2 of our revenue for sales and distribution from what we sell overseas
expanding # of overseas channels
continues to grow rapidly so they need something to put on the air--buying it from us is less expensive than making it themselves
american-branded networks in international versions--mtv, discovery, etc
what sells well overseas
ficitonal series' (drama/action-adventure does better than comedy)
IE sopranos, alias, the sheild
...less reliant on language bc much comedy is culture-specific
action/adventure shows are more expensive so a station would rather buy than produce them
sci-fi and fantasy do well
comedy= hit or miss
talk shows, sports, children shows, animation all do well
EU about selling shows overseas
at least 51% of all programming must be european in origin with exception to news, sports, and games
ppl concerned about potential harmful effects of american programming on other cultures
remake a show for viewers in another country
nonfiction (game shows, reality): the original programmer sells the rights to do this
biggest hits: WOF and jeopardy
remake fictional shows
dramas and comedies: you buy the rights AND the scripts (saves time and money)
Friends in china
south park in taiwan
launch of branded channels in other countries
became possible thru technological and regulation improvements
recent massive deregulation overseas caused ppl to want more choice--more stations
as cable grids spread, satellites launched, etc, there was capacity for new networks to launch overseas
mtv overseas
mtv is virtually global now
384 mill households and 140 countries (2/3)
most widely distributed ntwrk in the world
increased localization
"think globally, act locally"
mtv pays attention to what local viewers want to see and hear
reversioned for US tv
touching evil
coupling (NBC)--a lot of hype but did poorly
british blamed NBC for the fialure because they took over
7 things that often change with reversioning
creative feel of show
the librarian
made-for-tv movie
action-adventure made to be funny
tnt shows movie at 8 pm then again at 10 pm same night

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