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Exam 1


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copy deck
ticket scalping
Selling a ticket for a price in excess of the price printed on the ticket
postevent impact analysis
research conducted after the event ends to determine the effect that the event had on the sponsor's product or on the community in general
"the acquisition of rights to affiliate or directly associate with a product or event for the purpose of deriving benefits related to that affiliation or association."
value added
the perception, by the consumer, of added or augmented product or service benefits
local television contracts
agreements made between professional teams and local television stations and regional sports networks
Individuals or groups responsible for controlling the flow of proposals or solicitations to the decision maker
teaching professional
A professional athlete who focuses primarily on teaching other athletes the intricacies of the sport.
associated economic activity
Money spent by sport participants, spectators, and sponsors
instituted rule set
the prescribed rules associated with a particular sport
Equity in Athletics Disclosure Act
position player
Any baseball player other than a pitcher
The unstated ideas that people see as worthwhile
Federation Internationale de Football Association
place attachment
The sense of identity that people develop with a location based on a sport team or figure
the league structure that oversees both the competitive and the business elements of the sport
gross national sport product (GNSP)
The total economic output of the sport industry in the United States
The interaction between two components, such as tourism and sport
Reasons or impetus underlying behavior.
displacement effect
The process whereby potential tourists are discouraged from visiting a destination because of perceptions of such hassles as crowding and construction or fear of terrorism
to use a licensing agreement to create additional marketing opportunities that may or may not be directly related to the original agreement
sport (Council of Europe- 2001)
"all forms of physical activity which, through casual (informal) or organized participation, aim at expressing or improving physical fitness and mental well-being, forming social relationships or obtaining results in competition at all levels"
virtual signage
Signage generated by digital technology and placed into a sport telecast so that the sign appears to be part of the playing surface
Skills and knowledge necessary for successful performance in the job
underrepresented groups
People who traditionally have not been hired in sport management positions (e.g., women, people of color, people with disabilites)
workforce diversity
People of different ages, genders, religions, physical abilities, social classes, sexual orientations, races, ethnicities, and cultures working together in an organization
sport excursionist
Person who travels for sport and is away from home for less than 24 hours
place pride
The feelings of pride people have in their community arising from the success of their local sports teams or athletes
People who happened to be visiting the destination and chose to attend the event instead of doing something else
Historically Black colleges and universities
refers to the notion that every team has a legitimate chance to win the championship based on the resources available
nostalgia sport tourism
travel to visit sport halls of fame, sport-themed attractions, or sport venues
organizational culture
Workplace values, norms, and behaviors that produce patterns of behavior unique to an organization
hallmark events
highly visible events that are attended by many people, watched by even more on television, and followed by the internet
sustainable development
the protection of the social and environmental resources of a destination for the long term rather than emphasizing short term gain
Concerns about the way the world should or ought to be
rotating signage
A form of sign placed on scoreboards and adjacent to playing surfaces that can rotate the advertisements shown
luxury tax
a device used by MLB and NBA to tax the teams that spend the most on player payroll and share those taxes with teams that do not have high payrolls
the process of hiring a company to perform an organizational function of the team or league
traveler types
Different types of travelers from leisure tourists to business travelers or people visiting friends and family
convention and visitors bureau (CVB)
A community agency funded by the "bed tax," the local taxes paid for stays in commercial lodging (like hotels)
Blindly or excessively patriotic
naming rights
rights granted to a corporation to have its name on a professional sport facility in exchange for payment
discretionary funds
Money left over after necessary expenditures (e.g. rent, food, car payment, insurance) have been made
small-market teams
Professional teams located in midsize or smaller markets that offer modest potential fro local media contracts
ambush marketing
A tactic whereby a company attempts to undermine the sponsorship activities of a rival, which owns the legal rights to sponsor an event; intended to create the sense that the ambusher is officially associated with the event
Associating the name of a sponsor with the name of an event or facility in exchange for cash or other considerations
changing an organization's structure or philosophy to capitalize on existing opportunities or changing business environments
becoming a smaller organization by reducing personnel or departments.
tourism sport
Trip in which sport is the secondary reason for traveling.
blood doping
The practice of illicitly boosting the number of red blood cells, which transport oxygen, to enhance athletic performance
licensing revenues
Royalties paid to athletics departments by second parties in return for the right to produce and sell merchandise bearing a logo or other mark associated with its sport program
the assets a sport property has to sell.
sport (Pitts, Fielding and Miller- 1994)
"any activity, experience, or business enterprise for which the primary focus is fitness, recreation, athletics, and leisure related"
Olympic Games legacy
Positive effects of the Olympic Games on the host cities and countries.
a program or product that the vendor executes without further involvement from the client
one-plus-three model for intercollegiate athletics
A model of intercollegiate athletics reform proposed by the Knight Commission that emphasized individual presidential control over three areas: academic integrity, financial integrity, and independent certification of athletics programs
Civil Rights Restoration Act
Passed by Congress in 1987, vetoed by President Reagan, and passed (over his veto) in 1988.
grassroots programs
Programs targeted to people at the primary level of involvement, usually participants rather than spectators
a facility or site where a special event or sport activity takes place
One who organizes, manages, and assumes the risks of a business or enterprise
gross global sport product
The total economic output of the sports industry worldwide.
successful solicitation of financial or other resources on behalf of the sport property
Bay Area Laboratory Cooperative, whose founder Victor Conte and others have been implicated in providing designer performance enhancing drugs and steroids to MLB players and Olympians
mock interview
A practice interview in which you can rehearse your response to questions that interviewers are likely to ask you
Concerns about the way the world is, was, or will be
North American Society for Sport Management
destination image
The impression that people hold of a certain location
Relating to matters of fact or practical affairs often to the exclusion of intellectual or artistic matters; practical as opposed to idealistic
the variable patterns of tourist visitation throughout the year at a destinations. Most destinations have three seasons: a peak season, a shoulder season and an off season
academic fraud
Inappropriate conduct in academic areas such as having tutors write papers for athletes, providing athletes with copies of tests in advance, changing athletes' grades so they can remain eligible, and other practices that violate principles of academic dishonesty
small-scale sport event
A regular season or a smaller one-off sport event, such as amateur and youth tournaments and college sports
bureaucratic model
An organized design that stresses specialization, division of labor, hierarchy, formal rules, and standard operating procedures
extreme (action) sports
A general term for a collection of newer sports involving adrenaline-inducing action. They often feature a combination of speed, height, danger, and spectacular stunts
mass mediated
Distributed through media such as newspapers, television, radio, and the internet
An agreement negotiated in 1947 among 23 countries, including the US, to increase international trade by reducing tariffs and other trade barriers
ticket operations
Process by which tickets are distributed to customers (season ticket holders and fans) coupled with attention to a high level of customer service
large-market teams
Professional teams located in large markets that offer high potential for lucrative local media contracts
sport management
"all people, activities, businesses, and organizations involved in producing, facilitating, promoting, or organizing any product that is sport, fitness, and recreation related"
time switchers
Visitors who had been planning to visit the destination and then switched their plans to coincide with the event
LED signage
this signage is computer generated and has the capability to add sound, animation, and other visual affects to present a colorful, eye-catching message.
sports commission
Local or state agency responsible for attracting and organizing sport events to help communities capitalize on the potential benefits of sport tourism
psychic income
The pride that people have in their community, generated by hosting a sport event
the collective group of ownership that is negotiating with the players, or labor
a one-time international event of a large scale, such as the olympic games or the world cup
An organization currently composed of the following Western European nations: Belgium, Germany, France, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Denmark, Greece, Ireland, Portugal, Spain and the UK. The EC attempts to unify and integrate member countries by establishing common economic policies
requesting support or assistance on behalf of a sport property from a potential sponsor
sport tourist
Person who travels for sport and is away from home more than 24 hours. Sport is the primary reason for the trip
A 1994 agreement reached by the US, Canada, and Mexico that instituted a schedule for phasing out tariffs and eliminated a variety of fees and other hindrances to encourage free trade among the three countries
the collective group of athletes in team sports that unionize so that they can bargain collectively with the league owners
National Association for Sport and Physical Education
league think
the notion that teams mush recognize the importance of their competition and share revenues to ensure that their competitors remain strong. (NFL best at)
active sport tourism
Travel to take part in sport, such as a golf vacation
The building up or maintaining of informal relationships, especially with people who could bring advantages such as job or business opportunities
single-entity structure
A form of league governance in which teams are owned by the league and the players sign contracts with the league
critical reflection
Making judgements about whether professional activity is equitable, just, and respectful of persons

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