This site is 100% ad supported. Please add an exception to adblock for this site.

phil ethics


undefined, object
copy deck
Conclusion of GW2
 we are subject to moral duty if and only if we are rational agents with autonomy of the will
Establish for Kant

task of defending the common presumption that the principle is rationally binding

Synthetic style of argument 

Formula of Universal Law  
we ought to act only on that maxim which we can at the same time will that it should become a universal law
Formula of Universal Law of Nature
act as though the maxim of your action were to become by your will a universal law of nature
Formula of Humanity  
act in such a way that you treat humanity, whether in your person or in any other person, always at the same time as an end, never merely as a means
Formula of Autonomy  
act only on maxims that are consistent with the will’s own universal lawgiving
Kingdom of ends Formula
 All maxims from one’s own lawgiving are to harmonize with a possible kingdom of ends’
Meaning of Autonomy
If and only if we are rational agents with autonomy of the will, we necessarily accept, as our own rational standards, the formulas of the CI
Common belief in duty warranted
f and only if we are rational persons with autonomy of the will (or at least if and only if we are justified in thinking so)
Error of Previous moral theories

they fail to see that morality, properly understood, presupposes that moral agents have autonomy of the will

Not rationally self-governing but ruled by something else<

Kant on sentimentalism
Kant seems to understand sentimentalist theories as recommending that we be kind and just to others beca
Seeking for Kant

 to identify formulations of that standard that express its essential features

Analytic style of argument 

an expression of an objective principle (a command of reason) to an imperfect will
categorical imperatives
unconditional requirements of reason that says you must do x and not just because doing so will promote your contingent ends
The Categorical Imperative
a necessary and comprehensive standard of rational choice that says in effect that one must do x regardless of whether doing so promotes one’s contingent ends
If there are such relatively specific categorical imperatives, there must be a CI

ci's tell us rationally nec

 standards rationality that wrong in those c's, not just b/c fails to further interest

 need comprehensive, nec requ to x whether conforms or not

supreme leader for state 

The Gap

The concept of a CI tells us that it would express a requirement to conform the maxim of our proposed action to the law and that the law is unlimited by any further condition

Problem with FUL  

Maxim description

Maxims not in head, so which description, but if allow moral considerations then no independent standard of rightness or wrongness for particular acts. 

Ways to violate FUL

Contradiction in conception

    Promising - I will break my promises when this will advantage me - but as universal law of permission, anyone anywhere break promises, but idea of promise is under obligation even if not in my intere

Problems with FULN  
Causal or teleological laws
Thick interpretation of humanity formula

We should understand the idea of human dignity, or humanity as an end in itself, as a cluster of prescriptions about how to regard and treat human beings


Problems with Humanity Formula  

Kant's claim that all humans have humanity - argument from how rational agents conceive of themselves and from setting ourselves ends.

Tragic dilemmas 


Rationally self-governing

author - legislate universal laws independent of incl.

subject - only subject to universal laws that we legislate from standpoint. 

Interpretation of Kingdom of Ends

ideal that treats moral requirements as the normative 'laws' that agents, as

Description of parties and motivation in KOE

rational - think logically do not make laws without good reason

autonomous - author and subject without being motivated by inclination 

Abstract from personal differences - set aside knowledge of personal differences and special intere

Advantages of KOE

Avoid problem of maxim description - finding system of moral principles like laws of state, and check moral status of an act by comparing it under any description to system of principles, and might require actions along with maxims.

Help us to th

Point of conclusion of GW2 argument  
What it means to be a rational agent with autonomy of the will is to be bound by the principle of autonomy, and this principle is practically equivalent to the categorical imperatives which are presupposed by morality, so morality presupposes that we are

Mill - Principle of Utility

Greatest Happiness Principle 

actions are right in proportion as they tend to promote happiness, wrong as they tend to produce the reverse of happiness
Mill on Happiness
is intended pleasure, and the absence of pain; by unhappiness, pain, and the privation of pleasure
Mill's Hedonism

happiness is desirable as an end and the only thing desirable as an end in itself.  All other valuable things are valuable only as parts of or means to happiness.

'Tendency' in Mill's Principle of Utility

the probability that acts of that kind have been found to promote happiness.


Qualities of Pleasure for Mill

Hedonism doctrine worthy only of swine objection

 Differences in qualities of pleasure

Competent judges - experience of both, self-conscious, self-observant, set aside moral obligations and expected consequences - if prefer it th

Problems with the competent judge test

Sidgwick - quality is quantity under a different name or it is a non-hedonistic value 

Why set aside moral considerations and expected consequences - can't just say because of circularity

Mill deserting Hedonism - if lexically prio

Sidgwick - Classical formulation of utilitarianism
acts are objectively right insofar as they increase utility, objectively wrong as far as they diminish it
Act utilitarianism
an act is right just in case no other act open to the agent would produce more utility
Bentham's Principle of Utility
approves or disapproves of every action whatsoever, according to the tendency which it appears to have to augment or diminish the happiness of the party whose interest is in question<
Sidgwick's argument for the Principle of Utility

equity-not right treat diff only if num ident

rat prud-mere diff time not reason ground more regard wb

rat benef-good one person no more important 'pov universe' than another

bound aim at good generally 

Arguments for classical utilitarianism  
  1. Intuitively speaking, morally right to impartially promote what ultimately matters - pleasure and absence of pain
  2. Sidgwick's argument
  3. Mill's proof
  4. Rawls - applying to morality the principle of rational choice for on
Moral percepts for Mill

History shown that when generally followed, respected, taught and socially enforced, conducive to utility and essential for members of a society to enjoy a decent standard of living.

Prohibitions on stealing, breaking promises, failing to respect

Wrong for Mill

To break percepts in normal circumstances

means that a person who violates one of them ought to be punished for doing so. 

Duty for Mill
What we may be compelled to do - what may be exacted from us, 'as one exacts a debt'
Percepts of justice for Mill
Percepts that assign rights to particular individuals, which gives them valid claims on society to protect their possession of whatever they have a right to.
Right for Mill
Rights give people valid claims on society to protect their possession of whatever they have a right to.
Tom on Mill on wrong

strictly speaking, it is wrong to violate the moral percepts except when doing so would produce more utility.

    One way to reconcile 2 and 5

What 'Mill's Proof' is trying to prove.

Hedonism - that happiness is desireable and the only thing desireable as an end, all other things being only desireable as a means to that end.

 Takes consequentialism for granted, as did Sidgwick and Moore.

Type of proof that Mill's proof is

Mill says cannot be roof in ordinary and popular sense-questions of ultimate ends are not amenable

first premises of knowledge subject to direct appeal to senses, first premises of value of ends subject to appeal to our desires. 

Mill's proof - Happiness is desireable as end
sole evidence possible produce anything desireable as end is that people actually desire it.
Hobbes - absurdity

somewhat like absurdity-vol undoing that which beginn vol done

judge good-change mind

perf-meaning under ob, so if use correctly but fail then contradic

no prudential reason even if absurd 

Mill's Proof - Happiness is the only thing desireable as an end

Human nature is so constituted as to desire nothing which is not either a part of happiness or a means to happiness, so nothing else is good to any person.

Mill's proof - general happiness is good to the aggregate of all people

Each person's happiness is good to that person

The general happiness is therefore good to the aggregate of people 

Mill's proof - The general happiness is the only good to the aggregate of all people

Each person desires nothing that is not either a part of his happiness or a means to it.


Conclusion of Mill's proof  

The general happiness therefore is a good to the aggregate of all people

Nothing is a good to t

Mill on psychological hedonism

Premise people only desire happiness as an end

 Process of association and habit formation, pleasure not always object of desire, not all motives are anticipation of them.

Mill and methodological premise

Deny intuitive faculty

Analogy between desireable and visible

knowledge of visible is experience, knowledge of desireable comes from desire.

Aggregation and Mill

Individual instances of happiness are good (by method. point) so 'to each person' represents location, not point of view.

Reason people value own happiness commits them to others 

Problem with aggregation point and Mill

Sidgwick - Some people hold that what is valuable is their own happiness, not happiness per se.

But what is so special about your happiness? 


Rational being with a will is able to make things happen, app explanation refers to principles, laws or reasons on which she acted.

Connect event and person's beliefs and committments. 

Task of GW3 - Establish

there actually are unconditional requirements of reason that are independent of desire and inclination

synthetic or constructive 

Outline of Mill's proof
H desireable as end, H only thing desireable as end, GH good to all people, GH only good to aggregate of all
freedom of the will - conceived negatively
we think of our choices as not causally determined by prior natural causes beyond our influence, and we can act for (non HI) reasons.
Freedom of the will - conceived positively - autonomy of the will

Rationally self-governing

Author and subject of law - CI principles - not adopted because of feelings and inclinations 

Negative freedom entails positive freedom

Must be laws that explain why effect is attributed to person's will.

Not causal laws - b/c ind. of determination

Subject to different laws - self-imposed laws. 

Main problem with GW3

Free will might be capable of following only HI

Can explain why did what did 

So why think laws must be independent of our ends? 

Positive freedom to morality

person with autonomy has CI as standard of choice

This is the principle of morality - so all rational agents are under moral laws iff have (neg) freedom of the will. 

Rational agency to negative freedom

r. will cannot act except under idea of freedom free from practical point of view - in acting, suppose have genuine options

 all rational beings free from this s/p

We take up this s/p here, so all rat have freedom of the wil

Conclusion of GW3

all rational agents under moral laws

We are rational agents - take ourselves when deliberate about what to do

So we are subject to moral law 

Rationality of moral conduct - Kant - two ways show irrational if act immorally

(1) acting contrary to principle he himself accepts

(2) rational agents are nec committed to principle, so violating it is irrational 

Epicurus - goal or end of life

our own static pleasure - natural and familiar

kinetic - lack or need is removed

Static - pleasure once pain is removed - no anxiety.

Types of desires for Epicurus

necessary - for food

unnecessary - specific type food

empty - based on empty beliefs that make trouble for person who has them.

Epicurus' moral theory
egoistic hedonism
we ought to seek our own pleasure because it is our final goal or end, and we ought only to do this
Virtues for Epicurus

living virtuously is part of our final end of pleasure

Living virtuously requires us to seek virtue for its own sake

prudence is highest virtue - prudential motivation and wisdom on how to achieve final end


Epicurus on justice - contractual nature

result of contract enter and uphold because of need for security and fear of punishment

Constant calculation leads to fear and anxiety. 

 If no real fear, might not act justly.


Epicurus on justice - character trait
Once contract in place - best achieve final end by stable character trait to behave justly for own sake rather than out of fear of punishment - calculation point.
Problems with Epicurus

(1) how are virtues part of final end

(2) why act virtously when not in our interest?

(3) less plausible if no natural teleology 

(4) not moral conception because generality 

Hobbes - characteristis of parties

Predominant egoism


rough equality


 Conflicting desires among each other


Hobbes - right, liberty, power

Right is a liberty

liberty is absence of external impedimants on a person's power

Power is the capacity to use means to satisfy present and future desires.

right to x iff I can use my power to use X as I wish 

Hobbes - right of nature
liberty each man has to use his own power for the preservation of his own nature
Conflict in state of nature - Hobbes - Rationality account

Competition over resources - always searching for means to satisfy desires

Limited scarcity  - desire same things

Rough equality - so compete

Distrust out of fear - preemptive strike


rational self-interest model - Hume

did not subscribe-skeptic pr

responses to sensible knave provide further reasons why someone who adhered to this model would have reason to be moral 

Some laws of nature - Hobbes

1. seek peace

2. Lay down all rights for peace if others do so as well

3. Fulfill covenants

4. Gratitude 

Hobbes -in foro interno and in foro externo

everyone must desire that the laws of nature are satisfied

only sometimes rational for a person to perform acts

keeping covenant serves ends only when others willing to do same. 

Awful conditions in state of nature - Hobbes

domestic aggression - conflict

foreign invasion 

Extricate from state of nature - Hobbes

Parties will form a contract to tranfer (nearly) all of their rights to a soverign who will have absolute power over them.

Bilateral contracts with each other or unanimously give away their rights to a conquering soverign. 

Transferring a right - Hobbes
Transferring a right amounts to renouncing one's liberty to hinder others from exercising their right to that thing.
Contract - Hobbes
mutual transferance of rights
Covenant - Hobbes
people form a contract in which they mutually transfertheir rights and one or more of the parties agree to perform after the contract is made.
Injustice - Hobbes
breaking of covenants.
Obligation - Hobbes

if you transfer a right, you are under an obligation not to interfere with the benefit of the person's right.

Should be fulfilled because of absurdity and self-interest argument 

Hobbes' Foole

In the state of nature, thinks it is not against reason for a person sometimes to break her covenants in the SON.


Does not fear divine punishment

No problem in civil society - penalties too great 

Hobbes' response to the Foole

Acts against right reason because his actions foster a reputation of untrustworthiness that will be detrimental to his long-term interests

Or he acts on the basis of an irrational assumption that he will not be found out as such a person. 

Hobbes' argument for absolute soverign
a limited power in civil society must be limited by something with greater power, and this regress will end only when there is an unlimited power, which is the sovereign.
Point of agreement - Hobbes
Hobbes argues that the only rational point of agreement among people in the state of nature is to institute an absolute sovereign and ‘authorize all his actions’
Hobbes' moral theory summary
the correct moral rules are what rational, strongly death-averse and predominantly self-interested people living in a state of anarchy would agree to when choosing the social arrangements by which they will all live.
Problems with Hobbes

(1) We are social creatures so no idea about state of nature, and whether solves problem

(2) real or hypothetical?

 (3) inadequate response to Foole

benevolence virtue - Hume

Sympathetically identify with pleasure it tends to bring others

 moved by feeling of sympathy.

Natural virtues - Hume
traits people naturally possess and naturally approve of from general point of view
Hume - virtue 
a virtue is any mental quality that tends to give rise to approbation, 'by the mere survey' from a general point of view


GPV - sympathetic working, type of trait, usual effects

Useful and immediately agreable - ourselv

Artificial virtues - Hume
approve of from general point of view though people do not naturally possess them.
Why no natural motive to justice - Hume


benevolence - sometimes not to common good

duty - sense act is virtuous, which is same as sense that motive of act is virtuous, and this is motive trying to explain 

Why live in social groups - Hume
substantial prudential advantages for everyone - utilize divisions of labor and mutual protection
Conventions that will become established - Hume

stabalize possession and transfer of property

emerges gradually as people come to see benefits

results over conflict of material resources. 

Public knowledge of all following, will be mutually advantageous. 

Hume utilitarian?

not utilitarian  - did not think conventions justiifed by conduciveness to general pleasure, wellbeing or whatever.

instituting and following certain conventions can be very useful - broadly understood in terms of mutual advantages. 

Circumstances of justice - Hume

Society is a system of mutual cooperation

Identity and conflict

Conventions useful 

Limited scarcity - Golden Age and Shipwreck (E)

Moderate selfishness - Utopianism

Intelligence - Hobbes

Sensible knave

occasionally acts unjustly and conceals acts through deception

response Hume's sensible knave

(1) risk found-punished and excluded from coop

(2) Own conscience and others-natural approval of justice

(3) diff knowledge of how evade

(4) improper prudential judgment - worthless toys and gewgaws. 

(4) good people be

Why annex virtue to justice? - Hume

When take up general point of view, notice harm of injustice

sympathetically identify with displeasure, so led to disapprove of character traits that cause them to act that way. 

Butler - method


natural teleology - inevestigate human nature itself, by looking at various parts of soul, each have own function

virtue - soul works well when each part plays their proper role and standing in app relations to other parts

Parts of soul - Butler

Conscience on top

self-love (2 order desire that our particular affections fulfilled)

general beneficience (2 order desire for good of others)

no contrariety 

particular affections (some towards and away us) 

Particular affections - Butler  
principles of action or movements towards particualr objects or events
Paradox of egoism - Butler

Without particular affections for certain things, self-love could not employ itself on anything

So all of my motivations cannot be 'that my desires that benefit myself are satisfied' 

Reasonable self-love - Butler
satisfaction of the affections we have as a result of calm deliberation
Particular benevolence - Butler
second-order desire that some particular affections of another person are satisfied (and because it would be good for her, rather than because it would make me miserable)
General benevolence - Butler
desire that everyone do well - and we have this desire because we care about their good.
Reasonable self-love, reasonable benevolence and conscience - relation

Conscience gives appropriate expression to all basic natural dispositions - this is its role

so these three all coincide

if understand true happiness or true benevolence, always lead same way 

Butler - Conscience

approves our x in a cool hour after taking in facts

a law to ourselves

natural role-govern other faculties-give them natural expr-bring conduct before it

add motivation 

action is right is sentiment of underst and a percep

Reasonable self-love and reasonable benevolence - relation

Happiness is satisfaction of particular desires

Some of these are for good of others

happiness consists in part in passions having to do with good of others - so often coincide

nature requires them fulfilled in due degrees 

Morality and Immorality- Butler

Acting differently from what conscience recommends (which is our nature)

So a departure from our nature.

We ought to act in accordance with our nature in a rational way.

Virtue - Butler

Virtue consists in following and vice in deviating from human nature.

A fitting life is one in which parts are working together properly- and this is one in which we are following our nature. 

Problems with natural teleology

(1) Metaphysical

(2) Fact/Value - Hume and Hobbes worry, only descript. or normative (flourish), or some unholy mix

(3) descr of behavior not vindicate

(4) asking how to live 

(5) reason no set goal 

self-interest and morality -consequentialist model - rationality as seeking to maximize intrinsic value

draws other-regarding and self-regarding requirements from a common source - judgments of intrinsic value

many things means to intrinsic value

reasons derive from promoting this value 

psyhological egoism  - Butler - problem

psych egoism - all human action motivated by concern for self

sl cannot be only motive since requires partic desires

So must care about things other than own happy 

Acting from concern for sl can make less happy

Butler - problems - 2
Natural teleology-more inspiring than convincing that rsl never recom. injustice

What are we deliberating about?-sure requires calm cool hour, but what criteria do we use and what makes it morally binding? - intuition, sentim, rational (dp)

laws of nature - features - Hobbes

Dictates right reason

hi's - rider 'if seek peace (means to s-preserv), then do x if others as well'

immutable and eternal

delivered by God

bind in foro interno (to desires)

not always in foro externo (actions)
problems with self-interest model - rationality, morality, self interest

pursuing good of another or end (artistic project) for own sake is ir

ir to forgo some benefit to onself

break rules if slightest benefit even if huge sacrifice to others

psych egoism - emp false (Hume and Butler)


what be's morality
concerned primarily or entirely with our relations to others

especially requires some sacrifice with regard to pursuit of (immediate) self-interest

(maybe) universal, general principles


reasons for self-interest model - rationality and morality

Not conceptual claim since we can deny the view without self-contradiction

Not intuitive or self-evident

historically - emp. psychological egoism-not tautol, but B and Hu show emp false

Even if pe true, would not show req rat. 

egoism - types

taut - always act satisfy own desires

causal-desire SOA according to amount of benefit found to afford us in past-but could be other-regard


non-max-ultimate aim is personal benefit 

predomin-si motives precedence <

rationality and morality - efficiency model

pr requirs us to take the best means to our ends or give up the ends

Hume-ends are not in themselves ir-called if adopted on basis of ir belief


thought how achieve ends and adjustment of ends 

rationality and morality - efficiency model - advantage
allows many types of ends - other-regarding and self-regarding
rationality and morality - efficiency model - problems

does not require high priority on own interests

or on interests of others - Hume, not irrational to prefer destruction of world to scratching of finger

break moral rules (murder, rape, promises) if best means to ends - but counterintuitive&

reason and morality - consequentialist model - advantages

same source for self-regarding and other-regarding reasons from same source - so good of others and ourselves give reasons to act directly, rather than our own good or personal ends

makes interests of others weigh heavily in deliberations 

Method of ethics - Sidgwick
any rational procedure by which we determine what we ought to do by voluntary action.
rationality and self-interest - Kantian model

we have sr and or desires

Auton-don't always act on basis of strongest desire-act acc to principles

HI-reason pursue adopted end-revisable

rat nature inescap committed HI and CI-GW2

Contingent ends not rat nec choose-gwq&nbs

Bentham - pleasure and pain

Psychological h-ultimate source of acts

ethical h-only pleasure and pain valuable

structurally similar-felecific calculus to measure value of acts-intensity, duration, fecundity, purity (pl does not lead to pa), remoteness, extent, certaint

rationality and self-interest - Kantian model - advantages

(1) doesn't give priority to si

(2) place high priority on si and oi - playroom for free choice for imperfect duties

(3) status of persons and respect moral rules

(4) agent relative restrictions - you ought not murder rather than

Kantian response to egoist

assumes all moral agents are committed to CI

all have wille (disposition) force us to recognize authority of moral law 

Conscience will torment you - social animals

Conscience of others

moral pleasure from acting right 

consequentialist model - rationality and morality - problems

(1) metaphysical and eplistemic

(2) does rationality require each person to maximize agent neutral goods

(3) do these prescriptions closely resemble what we would recognize as morality 

(3) is this how people tend to make decisio

Hobbes right reason
Right reasoning - correct prudential reasoning about interpersonal behavior
rational self-interest view

basic r requires that we act that will best promote our si

interpret si-pleasure, balance, desires for our own benefit 

si distinct from interests of others-may coincide-Butler

moral-inner rewards virtue, reputation

Natural teleology model -self-interest and morality

What we ought to do is act according to our nature, and when we do so, we give the best expression to our self-interest.

When we are acting according to our nature, we are acting morally and we are as well off as we can be.

Plato, Aristotle

Problems with deriving morality from natural teleology model - 1
Plato, Aristotle and Butler are more inspiring than persuasive that human nature is so constituted that when we follow it, reasonable self-love, proper appetitive part never recommends immorality
 derive morality from rational self-interest model - ways

1divine pun E-no afterlife and god beneficient

    H-takes up task-Foole denies god

(2) Inner-rewards of morality - H-no guilt or conscience E-less anxiety

(3) External sanctions security, punishment, reputation

consequentialist model - self-interest and morality

moral requirements regarding ourselves and others derive from the same source - agent-neutral intrinsic value.

What we ought to do is maximize intrinsic value, and this value includes our own interests along with the interests of others. 

Problems with Mill's proof


Psych hedonism - assoc and habit

Happiness desirable to general happiness

Outline of essay on error previous moral theories - GW2

morality presup - concl of moral re iff raw



duty-ci-CI   form  aut  error

other theories 


Gloucon's taxonomy of value

A-goods-we choose only for own sake

B-goods-we choose for sake and conseq

C-goods-we choose only for conseq

B-finest, both good making properties-justice

Plato - justice

psychological state, state of character

has sort of power makes life just-constituitive powers

praise just life is praising justice. 

Types of lives Gloucon considers

perfectly unjust, just

just-strip away all aspects not part of justice, including reput, and assume unjust reputation

unjust-not just, but reputation for it

wants shown that just person happier (eudaimonistic benefits) than unjust

Gloucon's challenge-outline

Division goods

point is show justice is B-good

justice-character, powers

two types of lives

life just happier 

Socrates' response to Gloucon

rulers, soldiers, merchants perform function

justice iff each elements serving role

Book 4- same thing not at same time do or suffer opposites in same respect and in relation to the same thing-confli desire


Problems with Socrates' response

psych, epis, metaphysics

3-par-soul rather than object parts, exhaustive class.

Q's about reason and natural teleology

our justice-requires act for good of others even if harm self-since only inner-relations, worry not defended ou

Socrates on reason

rule other parts

knowledge of the Forms, including Form of Good

valuable for person and soul. 

Circumstances of psychic justice

conditions nec for justice to exist and be maintained in a soul

just def true philosopher

implicit-discuss what it takes to be true philos

 soul, three parts, phil nature, free time and training, severe pain

just life happiest

4 def types, spir, nec app, unnec app, lawless app-arist happy

compare to tyran-enslaves least able do what wants-not ruled by reason, nec to do best for soul.

phil-ask what best, answer, act-most free and do-large eudom dividends.

Outline arguments for Hume's claim that moral distinctions are not based on reason - 5

(1) Conclusion of 2.3.3 - reason no influence, mor practical

(2) r ideas+facts, appro discov t+f, objects of moral are ori exist

(3) irr beliefs

(4)cause effect  (5) relations of reason 


moral distinctions not based on reason - practicality argument

reason alone no influence - 2.3.3

mor practical-how interpret

emperical-ext can accomodate

express emotion or univ prescript-then internalist

language only used to expr emot-so mj nec means sentiment 

moral distinctions not based on reason - Hume - second argument

echo 2.3.3

role r discover r of ideas and matters of fact

condems appro discov t+f

objects of moral-volitions, character, action-are o.e. not t+f

r not approv cond these, which meant do 

problem with second argument - Hume - moral distinct not based reason

moral of volit and acts not consist in conformity to reason in very limited sens-morality not consist in being t+f

Other arguments concerned with ways reason might do so. 

2.3.3 - reason slave passions

d and p always employed 'some design'd end or purpose' so not->act alone

passions orig exist not t+f, and all reason has reference to, so passion cannot be opposed or endorsed r

tr-b cause desires, no mediate - ir b

moral distinctions not based reason - third argument - irrationality

acts on false info or takes insuf means, ir, might be moral judgments

not her act but beliefs ir

typically people not deserve moral approval on acting on irr beliefs, so reason not lead to moral judgement 

moral distinctions not reason-fourth - causes and effects

reason condem or approve causes or effects of actions, vol charac - and these can be t+f

But immor of these does not rest solely with their causes and effects 

moral distinctions not reason-fifth-nature reason

reason discove: resembl, contrar, degree quality, m of fact

mj not drawn from these or any combination, for any offense, always be case same relation but not considered offense.

When consider a, v, c alone, not lead judg-examine ourselves f

Conclusion and point of moral distinctions not based on reason

dif v and v not t or f, and not drawn from reason, so must arise in part from sentiment

consider moral offens, see impressions ones find agreable and vice disagreable

general point of view 

Kant reply Hume on moral distinctions - a priori method

reasons a priori find CI

not from examples-cannot know acting on good reasons

only a priori establish univ and nec propos morality presup-if all follow a p, not show nec to do

cannot find by HI, so method not based inclin. 

Kant's reply to Hume on moral judgments and reason

beliefs only move combined disposition-reason alone can move

K's r robust-cognitive capac discern relati+fact, deep dispo (Wille) to ackn as author and act on abstract p's, HI CI-r part human nature.

mj subsume CI, all dispos follo

Kant reply Hume - moral distinctions not based on reason - explicit argument for why reason demands act morally

Summarize GW3

So mr are requ of reason, dispos to act in acc with requir, and mj subsume under those requir.

agree basic point need beleif and dispo 

Features of the KOE perspective

fully r-nec means ends, logical and consit, good reason

a-rational law-independent desire inclin

ends-high valuehumanity

abstract pd-pers diff and special interests, know have-otherwise fully informed

KOE - analogy with commonwealth

'systematic union of various rational beings through common laws'

citizens in KOE are ideal citizens subject to same laws and ideal legisl are authors

disanalogy-Kant's KOE has a soverign, 'holy will' that wills essentia

Kant's interpretation of KOE
Ideal of moral motivation, inspire and motivate us, making moral law more accessible by expr it in way closer to intuition and feeling

idea appealing bc represents abstractly what world would be if all followed law

not decision guide-GW FUL, MM HF

KOE - my interpretation

Basic-KOE puts before us ideal that treats moral req as normative 'laws' that agents, as lawgivers, would give themselves (as subjects) if r and a

ought act in acc princ that we and others legisl as universal moral principles from a certa

KOE - advantages

all pov

act descr-system rules laws state-some acts directly-check moral status act compare every true descr

moral rules, exceptions, dilemmas

makes us source of rules

ideas other formulas 

Dignity in the KOE legislative perspective
dignity constrains deliberation and motivates

grant rights and respect to others

rn as uncon and incompar worth pres, deve, honor

prima facie concern see each person's ends realized, or ensure freedom

cond allow devel and lead r an

Legislating in the KOE
find+res laws accept-r's can agree apart from inter

self-impos rules person diff, so morally nec b/c describe comit of mem, disreg factors

rat-laws consi not self-defeat

a-R's obeying them obeying, dignity

UL-gen and univ 

KOE - combines ideas of other formulas

complete characterization of basic moral law

FUL-form maxim, FH ends of maxim, KOE complete determination of maxims

making U laws, which is constraint on maxims

ends in themselves

FA-ind of inclinations, give themselves moral la

Problems with KOE - Utopianism

supports utopian or clean hands arguments of untenable sort-rules by what will for perfect rat citizens, ignoring fact we live in imperfect world-acting can prove disastrous


Problems with KOE - Utopianism - Response

ideal simply problem in harmless way if ideal conditions fairly close

forcing us consider worthwhile perspec

find principles for ideal, might next ask what princ these people would choose for our world 

Problem with KOE - Determinate Principle

may seem parties have sparse motivations, unable legislate enough determ principles

great deal of motivation however

principles choose very general, only recieve substantive content when applied to particular case - mid level principles

Keep covenants in state of nature - Hobbes

form covenants have justified fear that costs of non-performance outweigh benefits - worry failing to keep will hurt reputation and trustworthiness, and so jeopardize chances for survival.

right reason requires act prudentily, fulfill pervasive a

Aquinas-basic supp ethical theory
people have capacity for free choice and their actions are truly human only if made freely

Aquinas - practical reason

will, willing

set of capacities includes ability to understand and balance practical reasons (possible benefits of an action), devise plans and proposals, reason about effectiveness of plans

ability to respond to reasons intelligently, willing doing this 

Aquinas - natural teleology

human nature explained by capacities, explained by acts, explained by objects.

human nature rqeuires analysis of acts. 

Basic human goods - Aquinas

when have proper under, pr makes us nat attracted basic goods - truth, knowledge, justice, friendship

irreducible and intrins valuable for all humans

achieving one is sort perfection or fulfillment 

impl is aim at wb of others si

Virtue - Aquinas

if bring about all, eudomonia Ar, beatitude Aq-impossible b/c trade off when instant

pr aims for beatitude imperfecto-incomplete fulfillment

virtue-aiming at common good-integral human good-and harmonizing delib and character with it and ea

Derive rule - Aquinas - prive person ought not to kill any human being

Negative rules 

intrinsic aspect common good is basic good of life, certain acts contrary, since required will common good, ought not kill

true, exceptionless percepts 

Affirmative rules - Aquinas

require perform but require further judgment how to apply them in cases-nec to morally good life, always relevant, but playroom for decising.

return borrowed goods, honor parents 

Aquinas outline

practical reason-nat teleology, understand nature by objects of actions

when have understa, aim at certain goods-basic goods

beatitude imperfecto-virtuous life

law nature-good done, love neigh, neg aff


Fundamental moral principle - Aquinas - self evident

each good, princ says to be promoted-generalize-good done bad avoided'

unders goods, clear artic 'one should love one's neighbor as oneself' 

intent loving is will person's good, all neighbors, so will cg

s e<

Hobbes outline

basic, life in SON-rat acct

Extricate-laws of nature-insuff

benefits coop-rights-contract transfer rights-oblig comply-absolu soverign


function s public system rules, laws of nature, penalties

Epicurus outline

psyc and eth hedonist-goal end is certain sort pleasure-absence pain



Justice-trait, contract (security punishment anxiety)


Butler outline

nat teleo (watch)

parts of soul-relations



Compare Mill's Principle of Utilitywith one or more Kant's formulations

PoU and features, KOE and features

capture ideas, motivation, compatibility with personal projects, values and relationships, and moral basis\



Kant on happiness

personal contentment and success in achieving ends-moral constrain-nat end all humans

shift several ideas-all subject, indetermin and varaiable across persons, unattainable

cannot satisfy ends jointly, no determ idea whatwould be

Limit role of happiness in Kant - value

not uncon good-good will only good wo q-not worthy pursuit by rat agents in all contexts

no intrinsic values-things good by being object of rational willing

no aggreg-no scale personal and dign

Limit role of happiness - not criterion of right action or unqualified goal of moral rules - morality constrained

not always right do what expect max h, and rules not justified because general adoption promotes greatest h in long run

moral ass character, motive delib does not depend on effort and success pursuing happ-so promot h not generally reason do it

Epictetus - goal or end of life - Stoic philosophy

phil life, end eudaimonia, secured life of reason, living virtuously+acco nature

happiness is freedom from anxiety, freedom from passion, good feeling, awarness and capac attain what counts living rational being 

Epictetus - living according to nature

pursuing life intelligently, responding one's needs and duties as sociable human being

accepting one's fat and fate of world which comes from divine intelligence makes world best 

Epictetus - main theme - actions are 'up to us'

what is in our power is authority over ourselves that we have regarding capacity to judge what is good and evil

outside our power are 'external things' which are 'indifferent' with respect g+e-just happen not in power bc no absol

Epictetus - example of what is up to us
sickness not power since can't control when, or get better-makes sense visit doctor, but competence not in power or treatment-makes sense manage affairs carefully and responsibily but outcome not in power
Epictetus - what is in our power
capacity adapt ourselves to all that comes about, judge anything is dispreferred not as bad but as indifferent and not strong enough overwhelm strength of character
Epictetus - human psychology

all animals are motivated by impressions, but rat impr have content and require assent bf stimulates action

Rat animal examine content, can and should not assent impressions until sure correct-rediscribe situation so good bad in power

Epictetus - virtue and goods

unhappiness comes from mistaken beliefs what is truly good-pursuing lpeasure or wealth is mistake since do not benefit in all circ

virtue, capac use advant wisely, only candid for what is always benef, only good-so happiness-depend assent choice<

If and only if we are rational agents with autonomy of the will do we accept as our own rational standards the supreme principle of morality. - Tom's interp
supposed to be conclusion from formulations-what does idea of universal law mean-reformulat as acting confor laws give ourselves, which is being autonomous
Error of previous moral theories - the moral theories

Egoism-m is hi to hap

sent-m act directed by sent-r kind bc satisf inclin

divine-m follow god-r  G comm, but not good in thems since rat cond exist G, knowl comm, r obey fear

Perf-prom most perf in obsc meta sen-mor means end

'real' error of previous moral theories

misint m in ways imply only r to be moral are based on hi-rat follow moral req only bc something else we happen to will-r to be mor only by appealing to concern for things not good in themselves and prin not rat nec

agen cap acting only sake thin

'real' error of previous moral theories - example of divine command

reason be kind is god commands

does not make justice good in itself since rat of our being moral depends on exist god, knowledge divine commands and so on, and reasons to obey (fear, hope, etc.).