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Biology chpts 1-5 terms


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covalent bond
an attraction between atoms that share one or more pairs of outer shell electrons
nucleic acids are polymers assembled from individual monomers
energy of activation (Ea)
the amount of energy that reactants must absorb before a chemical reaction will start
a chemical process in which macromolecules ar ebroken down by the chemical addition of water molecules to the bonds linking their monomers; an essential part of digestion
a tentative explanation a scientist who poses for a specific phenomenon that has been observed
active transport
the movement of a substance across a biological membrane against its concentration gradient, aided by specific transport proteins
an organelle found in plants and photosynthetic protists. Enclosed by two concentric membranes, a chloroplast absorbed sunlight and uses it to power the sythesis of organic food molecules
an electrically neutral partical found in the nucleus
a group of two or more atoms held together by covalent bonds
member of the class of biological molecules consisting of simple single monomer sugars, two monomer sugars, and other multi unit sugars
a subatomic particle with a single negative electrical charge. One of more electrons moved around the nucleus of a man
a measure of the intensity of heat, reflecting the average kinetic energy or speed of molecules
"water loving"; pertaining to polar, or charged, molecules (or parts of molecules) that are soluble in water
a stack of thylakoids in chloroplast
radioactive isotope
an isotope whose nucleus decays spontaneously, giving off particles and energy
transferring a phosphate group from ATP to some other molecule
tight junctions
outermost cell junctions in epithelium (common name)
ionic bond
an attraction between two ions with opposite electrical charges. The electical attraction of the opposite charges holds the ions together
electron shells
an energy level representing the distance of an electron from the nucleus of an atom
thermal energy; the amount of energy associated with the movement of the atoms and molecules in a body of matter
A polymer (chain) of many amino acids linked together by peptide bonds.
evolutionary adaptation
an inherited characteristic that enhances an organims ability to survive and reproduce in a particular environment
an atom central core containing protons and neutrons; the genetic control center of a eukaryotic cell
induced fit
the entry of the substrate induces the enzyme to change its shape slightly and make the fit between substrate and active site
an organic compound with one or more amino groups
a specific substance on which an enzyme acts. Each enzyme recognizes only the specific substrate or substrates of the reaction it catalyze
potential energy
stored energy the amount of potential energy of an object depends on its position or condition
central vacuole
a membrane enclosed sac occupying most of the interior of a mature plant cell, having diverse rules in reproduction, growth, and development
an organic monomer consisting of a fice carbon sugar covalently bonded to a nitrogenous base and a phosphate group. building blocks of nucleic acids
the practical application of scientific knowledge
the smallest unit of matter that retains the properties of an element
cell theory
theory that all living things are composed of cells and that all cells come from other cells
an organism with eukaryotic cells
basal body
a eukaryotic cell organelle consisting of a 9 + 0 arrangement of microtubule triplets; may organize the microtubule assembly of a cilium or flagellum; structurally identical to a centriole
intermemrane space
one of the two fluid- filled internal compartments of the mitochondrion. the intermembrane space is the narrow region between the inner and outer membranes
dehydration reaction
a chemical process in which a polymer forms as monomers are linked by the removal of water molecules. One molecule of water is removed by each pair of monomers linked. Also called condensation
the dissolving agent in a solution. Water is the most versatile known solvent
a process in which a protein inravels, losing its pecific conformation and hence function; can be cause by changesin pH or salt concentration or by high temperature
of or involving muscular contraction in which tension is constant while length changes
a large polysaccharide composed of many glucose monomers linked into cable like fibrals that provides structural support in plant cell walls
cellular metabolism
the chemical activity of a cell
a fold of the inner membrane of a mitochondrion. Enzyme molecules embedded in a cristae make ATP
second law of thermodynamics
a law stating that mechanical work can be derived from a body only when that body interacts with another at a lower temperature
chemical energy
energy stored in the chemical bonds of molecules; a form of potential energy
in classification, the broad taxonomic category above phylum or division
eukaryotic cell
a type of cell that has a membrane enclosed organelles. All organisms except bacteria and archaea are composed of eukaryotic cells
a structure within the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell where ribosomal RNA is made and assembled with proteins to make ribosomal subunits; consists of parts of DNA chromatin, RNA transcibed from the DNA, and proteins imported from the cytoplasm
a substance that is dissolved in a solution
electron microscope (EM)
an instrument that focuses an electron beam through, or onto the surgace of, a specimen
the tendency for an atom to pull electrons toward itself
a group of interacting indiciduals belonging to one species and living in the same geographic area
gap junctions
cell junctions that are holes
one of two prokaryotic domains of life, the other being Archaea
one of the two prokaryotic domains of life, the other being of bacteria
a basic unit of living matter separated from its environment by a plasma membrane; the fundamental unit of life
the combination of DNA and proteins that constitutes chromosomes; often used to refer to the diffuse, very extended form taken by the chromosomes when the eukaryotic cell is not dividing
a cooperative unit of many similar cells that perfrom a specific function within a multicellular organism
secretory protein
a protein that is secreted by a cell
hydrogen bond
a type of weak chemical bond formed when the partially positive hydrogen atom participating in a polar covalent bond in one molecule is attracted to the partially negative atom participating in a polar covalent bond in another molecule
diffusion of molecules through a semipermeable membrane from a place of higher concentration to a place of lower concentration until the concentration on both sides is equal
an assemblage of all the organisms living together and potentially interacting in a particular environment
the organelle in animal cells responsible for hydrolosis reactions that break down fats
concentration gradient
an increase or decrease in the density of a chemical substance in an area. Cells often maintain concetration gradient of ions across their membranes
surface tension
a measure of how difficult it is to stretch or break the surface of a liquid
intermediate filaments
interconnect organelles to each other and to cytoplasmic membrane
an organism that obtains its food by eating plants or animals that have eaten plants
the branch of biology concerned with identifying, naming, and classifying species
carboxylic acids
an organic compound containing a carboxyle group
signal transduction
triggering a chain reaction of othe proteins which relay the signal to the specific acting molecule
the control of the gain and loss of water and dissolved solutes in an organism
light microscope (LM)
an optical instrument with lenses that refract visible light to magnify images and project them into a viwewers eye
amino acids
an organic molecule containing a carboxyl group and an amino croupe; serves as monomers of proteins
the movement of materials into the cytoplasm of a cell via membranous vesicles or vacuoles
a substance that decreases the hydrogen ion (H+) concentration in a solution
a phenomenon that occurs in plants in an hypertonic solution The cell loses water and shrivels, and its plasma membrane pulls away from the cell wall, usually killing the cell
pH scale
a measure of the relative acidity of a solution, ranging in value from 0 (most acidic) to 14 (most basic). The letters pH stand for potential hydrogen and refer to the concentration of hydrogen ions
cell wall
a protective layer external to the plasma membrane in plant cells, bacteria, fungi, and some protists; protects the cell and helps maintain shape
phosphate group
a functional group consisting of a phosphorus atom covalently bonded to four oxygen atoms
a giant molecule in a living organism: a protein, corbohydrate, lipid, or nucleic acid
exergonic reaction
an energy releasing chemical reaction in which the reactants contain more potential energy that the products. The reactions releases an amount of energy equal to the difference in potential energy between the reactants and the products
an individual living thing, such as a bacterium, fungus, protist, plant, or animal
the capactiy to perform wrok, or to rearrange matter
lipids whose carbon skeleton is bent to form four fused rings. These all have the same ring pattern: three six-sided rings and one five-sided ring.
a starting material in a chemical reaction
a protein that serves as a biological catalyst, changing the reate of a chemical reaction without itself being changed into a different molecule in the process
A three-dimensional biological polymer constructed from a set of 20 different monomers called amino acids.
a widely accepted explanatory idea that is broad in scope and supported by a large body of evidence
anchoring junctions
a junction that connects tissue cells to each other and allows materials to pass from cell to cell
thermal energy; the amount of energy associated with the movement of the atoms and molecules in a body of matter. Heat is energy in its most random form
chemical reaction
a process leading to changes in the composition of matters; involves the making and/or breaking of chemical bonds
a substance that cannot be broken down to other substances by chemical means
a taxonomic category above the kingdom level. The three domains of life are archaea, bacteria, and eukarya
having less than the maximum number of hydrogens, like fatty acids and fats with double bonds
controlled experiment
a component of the process of science where scientists carry out two parallel tests, and experimental tests and a controlled test.
the ability of a microscope or telescope to measure the angular separation of images that are close together
noncompetitive inhibitor
does not enter the active site--instead, binds somewhere else which changes the enzyme, disabling the active site
atomic number
the number of protons in each atom of an element
cellular respiration
the aerobic harvesting of energy from food molecules; the energy releasing chemical breakdown of food molecules, such as glucose, and the storage of potential energy in a form that cells can use to perform work; involves glycolysis, the citric acid cycle, and the oxidative phosphorylation
a chemical substance that resists changes in pH by accepting hydrogen ions from or donating hydrogen ions to solutions
anything that occupies space and has mass
an organism with prokaryotic cells
small and enclosed compartment in atleast 1 lipid bylayer
a structure in an animal cell composed of microtubules triplets arranged in a 9 + 0 pattern. An animal cell usually has a pair of centrioles in each of its centrosomes
cellular metabolism
the chemical activity of cells
a meshwork of fine fibers in the cytoplasm of a eukaryotic cell; includes microfilaments, intermediate filiaments, and microtubules
3 fatty acids (chains of hydrocarbons) bonded to a glycerol, most fats are eaten and absorbed in this form, carbohydrate
plasma membrane
a thin membrane around the cytoplasm of a cell
a sticky layer that surrounds the bacterial cell wall, protects the cell surface, and sometimes helps glue the cells to surfaces
a compound resulting from the formation of ionic bonds; also called an ionic compound
fluid mosaic
The currently accepted model of cell membrane structure, which envisions the membrane as a mosaic of individually inserted protein molecules drifting laterally in a fluid bilayer of phospholipids
organ system
a group of organs that work together in performing vital body functions
endergonic reactions
an energy requiring chemical reaction, which yields products with more potential energy than the reactants. The amount or energy stored in the products equals the difference between the potential energy in the reactants and that in the products
feedback inhibition
A method of metabolic control in which the end product of a metabolic pathway acts as an inhibitor of an enzyme within that pathway.
a conjugated protein having a carbohydrate component
the domain of eunkaryotes, organisms made of eukaryotic cells; includes all of the protists, plants, fungi, and animals
Adenosine triphosphate, the main energy source for cells
faciliated diffusion
the passive transport of ions or molecules by a specific carrier protein in a membrane
an inherited human disease characterized by an excessively high level of cholesterol in the blood
polar molecule
a molecule containing polar covalent bonds
the large macromolecules formed from monosaccharides
noting a solution of lower osmotic pressure than another solution with which it is compared
hypertonic solution
in comparing two solutions the one with greater concentration of solutes
chemical bonds
an attraction between two atoms resulting from a sharing of outer shell electrons or the presence of opposite charges on the atoms. the bonded atoms gain complete atom electron shells
Having an aversion to water; tending to coalesce and form droplets in water (example = motor oil).
a more complex organization formed from a combination of components
smooth plasmic reiculum or smooth ER
a network of inerconnected membranous tubules in a eukaryotic cells cytoplasm. Smooth ER lacks ribosomes, Enzymes embedded in the smooth ER membrane functions in the synthesis of certain kinds of molecules such as lipids
the smallest kind of sugar molecule; a single-unit sugar. Monosaccharides are the building blocks of more complex sugars and polysaccharides
doule bond
a type of covalent bond in which two atoms share two pairs of electrons; symbolized by a pair of lines between the bonded atoms
endomembrane system
a network of membranous organelles that partition the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells into functional compartments. Some of the organelles are structurally connected to each other
a structure with a specialized function within a cell
non membrane bounded organelles responsible for protein synthesis
kinetic energy
the mechanical energy that a body has by virtue of its motion
endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
an extensive membranous network in a eukaryotic cell, continuous with the outer nuclear membrane and composed of ribosome-studded (rough) and ribosome free (sooth) regions
organic compounds with the same molecular formula but different structures and, therefore, different properties
prokaryotic cells
Small, simple, no nucleus, no membrane-bound organelles, single loop of DNA (nucleosome), no cellulose, cytoplasm, cell membrane, cell wall (made of carbs), somtimes have cilia or flagella (movement).
extracellular matrix
a substance in which the cells of and animal tissue are embedded; consiting of protein and polysaccharides
The study of energy and its transformations
the attraction between molecules of the same kind
an ending material in a chemical reaction
a chemical process in which macromolecules are broken down by the chemical addition of water molecules to the bonds linking their monomers; an essential part of digestion
spiral strands of protein molecules that form a tubelike substance
acid (DNA)
a substance that increases the hyrogen ion concentration in a juice
pleated sheet
a certain kind of folding found in the coiling of a poplypeptide chain
passive transport
transport of a substance across a cell membrane by diffusion
a group of two or more atoms held together by covalent bonds
on fatty acid linked to an alcohol, they are more hydrophobic than fats
prokaryotic flagella
long projections used in prokaryotic cells for propulsion
competitive inhibitor
a substance that reduces the activity of an enzyme by binding to the enzyme's active site in place of the substrate. A competitive inhibitor's structure mimics that of the enzyme's substrate
eukaryotic cells
a type of cell that has a membrane enclosed nucleus and other membrane enclosed organelles. All organisms except bacteria and archaea are composed of eukaryotic cells
a structure consisting of several tissues adapted as a group to perform specific functions
an organism that derives its energy from organic wastes and dead organisms
prokaryotic cell
a type of cell lacking a membrane enclosed nucleus and other membrane enclosed organelles; found only in the domains bacteria and archaea
mass number
the sum of the number of protons and neutrons in an atom's nucleus
golgi apparatus
a net-like structure in the cytoplasm of animal cells (especially in those cells that produce secretions)
a chemical compound composed only of the elements carbon and hydrogen
the organelles in which nutrients are converted to energy
a group whose membrane possess similar anatomical characteristics and have the ability to interbreed
short projections that help prokaryotes attach to surfaces
carbonyl group
an organic molecule, a functional group consisting of a carbon atom linked to a double bond to an oxygen atom
double helix
the form of native DNA, reffering to its two adjacent polynucleotide strands wound into a spiral shape
polysaccharide that stores glucose in animals
a non protein substance, such as copper or ion, that helps an enzyme catalyze a metabolic reaction
thick fluid contained in the inner membrane of a chloroplast. Sugars are made in the stroma by the enzymes of the Calvin cycle
hydroxyl group
in an organic molecule, a functional group consisting of a hydrogen atom bonded to an oxygen atom
a substance containing two or more elements in a fixed ratio
anabolic steroids
a synthetic variant of the male hormone testosterone that mimics some of its effects
a sugar molecule consisting of two monosaccharides linked by a dehydration reaction
a large molecule consisting of many identical or similar molecular units, called monomers, covalently joined together in a chain
all the organisms in a given area, along with the nonliving factors with which they interact; a biological community and its physical enviorment
fats with the maximum number of hydrogens
a large lipid molecule kind of body tissue containing stored fat that serves as a source of energy
amino group
in an organic molecule, a functional group consisting of a nitrogen atom bonded to two hydrogen atoms
secondary structure
The localized, repetitive coiling or folding of the polypeptide backbone of a protein due to hydrogen bond formation between peptide linkages.
a subatomic particle with a single positive electrical charge, found in the nucleus
natural selection
differential success in reproduction by different phenotypes resulting from interactions with the enviorments. Evolution occurs when natural selction produces changes in the relative frequencies of alleles in a populations gene pool
scanning electron microscope (SEM)
a microscope that uses an electron beam to study the surface architecture of a cell or other specimen
everything inside a cell between the plasma membrane and nucleus
the elastic tension of living muscles, arteries, etc. that facilitate response to stimuli
Open channels in the cell wall of a plant through which strands of cytosol connect from an adjacent cell.
transmission electron microscope (TEM)
a microscope that uses an electron beam to study the internal structure of thinly sectioned specimen
aqueous solution
a solution in which the water is the solvent
quaternary structure
The paticular shape of a complex, aggregate protein, defined by the characteristc three-dimensional arrangement of its constituent subunits, each a polypeptide.
peptide bond
the primary linkage of all protein structures
nuclear envelope
a double membrane, preforated with pores, that encloses the nucleus and seperates it from the rest of the eukaryotic cell
an atom or molecule that has gained or lost one or more electrons, thus acquiring and electrical charge
mitochondrial matrix
inner membrane of eukaryotic cell mitochondria contains this fluid
a variant form of an atom. isotopes of an elemnt have the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons
first law of thermodynamics
the fundamental principle of physics that the total energy of an isolated system is constant despite internal changes
a protists that moves by means of one or more flagella
nitrogenous base
an organic base that contains nitrogen
a complex carbohydrate found chiefly in seeds, fruits, tubers, roots and stem pith of plants, notably in corn, potatoes, wheat, and rice
a chemical subunit that serves as a building block of a polymer
the movement of materials out of the cytoplasm of a cell via membranous vesicles or cauoles
a measure of disorder
energy coupling
energy released from exergonic reactions to drive essential endergonic reactions
a specific protein molecule whose shape fits that of a specific molecular messenger, such as a hormone
the smallest unit of matter that retains the properties of an element
tertiary structure
overall, three-dimensional shape of a polypeptide
active site
the part of an enzyme or antibody where the chemical reaction occurs
functional groups
an assemblage of atoms that forms the chemically reactive part of an organic molecule
nucleic acids
polymers that can serve as the blueprints for proteins. Has two types, DNA and RNA
fine, threadlike proteins found in the cell's cytoskeleton
ribonucleic acid (RNA)
a type of nucleic acid consisting of nucleotide monomers with a ribose sugar and the nitrogenous bases
large single membrane-found organelles involved in cellular storage. in animal cells are small; they are very large in plant cells
acid precipitation
rain, snow, ect with a pH below 5.6. It can damage or destroy organisms by acidifying lakes and streams
structures in a cell with a specific function
transport vesicle
small enclosed compartments separated from the cytosol by at least one lipid bilayer
an atoms central core, containing protons and neutrons. The genetic control center of a eukaryotic cell
polar covalent bond
an attraction between atoms that share electrons unequally because the atoms differ in electronegativity. the shared electrons are pulled closer to the more electronegative atom, making it partially negative and the other atom partially positive
lipid bilayer that are arranged tail to tail in the plasma membrane
rough endoplasmic reticulum or rough ER
A network of inerconnected membranous sacs in a eukaryhotic cells cytoplasm. Rough ER membranes are studded with ribosomes that make membrane proteins and secretory proteins
carbon skeleton
the chain of carbon atoms that forms a structural background of an organic molecule
the entire portion of earth inhabited by life; the sum of all the planet's ecosystem
a protein that serces as a biological catalyst, changing the rate of a chemical reaction without itself being changed into a different molecule in the process
primary structure
The level of protein structure referring to the specific sequence of amino acids.
atomic mass
the approx total mass of an atom; also called atomic weight
trace elements
an element that is essential for the survival of an organism but only in minute quantities
sequence of DNA that codes for a protein and thus determines a trait
carboxyl group
an organic molecule, a functional group consisting of an oxygen atom double bonded to a carbon atom that is also bonded to a hydroxyl group
alpha helix
coiling of a polypeptide chain results in this kind of secondary structure
the act of expanding something in apparent size
an organic molecule, usually vitamins, that acts as a cofactor helping an enzyme catalyze a metabolic reaction

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