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Biology Honors NC EOC Review

A review for the North Carolina Biology EOC. If anybody would like the notes from the class Joe Nenow has typed them up for everybody and you can get them here: http://snipurl.com/joesnotes

Terms

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Character displacement
divergence in adaptation
Vacuole
A fluid filled organelle that store enzymes of metabolic waste material
Density dependent factor
a variable related to the number of individuals in a population in a given area that affects population size
Omnivore
an organisim that eats plants and animals
Logistic growth
growth pattern in which a population's growth rate slows or stops following a period of exponential growth
Enzyme
any of several complex proteins that are produced by cells and act as catalysts in specific biochemical reactions
Chloroplast
A plastid containing chlorophyll; the site of photosynthesis
Phospholipid
any of various compounds composed of fatty acids and phosphoric acid and a nitrogenous base
C4 Pathway
an alternative pathway that enables certain plants to fix CO2 into four carbon compounds
Hypertonic
describing a solution whose solute concentration is higher than that inside a cell
Endergonic reaction
A non-spontaneous chemical reaction in which free energy is absorbed from the surroundings.
Ectoparasite
any external parasitic organism (as fleas)
Cytoskeleton
A network of long protein strands in the cytosolthat helps maintain the size and shape of the eukaryotic cell
Protein
macromolecule that provides structure and regular processes for the cells
Calvin cycle
uses ATP and NADPH from the light dependent reactions to produce high energy sugars, no light
Competition
the struggle between organisms to survive in a habitat with limited resources
Disaccharide
any of a variety of carbohydrates that yield two monosaccharide molecules on complete hydrolysis
Gross primary productivity
The rate at which producers in an ecosystem capture energy
Polar
when one end of a molecule has has a partial charge
Cohesion
(physics) the intermolecular force that holds together the molecules in a solid or liquid
Adenosine triphosphate
principal chemical compound that cell uses to store energy
Endoparasite
any of various parasites that live in the internal organs of animals (especially intestinal worms)
Flagellum
A hair-like structure made up of microtubles that function in locomotion
Ribosome
An organelle that funtions in the synthesis of proteins
Fluid Mosaic Model
A model of cell membranes structure representing the dynamic nature of membrane lipids and proteins
Prey
animal hunted or caught for food
Molecule
(physics and chemistry) the simplest structural unit of an element or compound
Electron transport chain
A sequence of electron carrier molecules (membrane proteins) that shuttle electrons during the redox reactions that release energy used to make ATP.
Matter
that which has mass and occupies space
Nuclear Matrix
The nuclear skeleton, a shape-maintaining protein
Plasmotysis
the shrinking or wilting of a walled cell in a hypertonic environment
Stoma
a minute epidermal pore in a leaf or stem through which gases and water vapor can pass
Competitive exclusion
one species succeeding over another when the growth of both species is limited by the same resource
Differentiation
(biology) the structural adaptation of some body part for a particular function, (biology) the structural adaptation of some body part for a particular function
Cell Membrane
the lipid bilayer that forms the outer boundary of a cell
Biomass
the total mass of living matter in a given unit area, the total amount of living tissue within a given trophic level
Pollinator
an insect that carries pollen from one flower to another
Redux reaction
the term for the process/chemical reaction that occurs when an electron is "lost" by one atom/molecule and gained by another atom or molecule in the reaction
Hydrophobic
Having an aversion to water; tending to coalesce and form droplets in water (example = motor oil).
Organelle
one of several formed bodies with a specialized function that is suspended in the cytoplasm and found in eukaryotic cells
Age structure
the number and proportion of people at each age in a population
Activation energy
the energy that an atomic system must acquire before a process (such as an emission or reaction) can occur
Substrate
the substance acted upon by an enzyme or ferment
Carnivore
a consumer that consumes other consumers
Survivorship curve
Graph showing the number of survivors in different age groups for a particular species.
Asexual reproduction
reproduction that does not involve the union of gametes and in which a single parent produces offspring that are genetically identical to the parent
Reproduction
The process by which an animal or plant gives rise to another of its kind.
Isotonic
describing a solution whose solute concentration is equal that inside a cell
Cell division
the process in reproduction and growth by which a cell divides to form daughter cells
Mitochondria
The organelle that is the site of aerobic respiration in eukaryotic cells
Isomer
a compound that exists in forms having different arrangements of atoms but the same molecular weight
Hydrophillic
the hydrocarbon end of a fatty acid molecule (water loving)
Steroid
any hormone affecting the development and growth of sex organs
Element
any of the more than 100 known substances (of which 92 occur naturally) that cannot be separated into simpler substances and that singly or in combination constitute all matter
Symbiosis
any relationship in which two species live closely together with mutalism, commensalism, parasitism
Development
(biology) the process of an individual organism growing organically
Stability
A community's resistance to change
Energy
(physics) the capacity of a physical system to do work
Hypotonic
describing a solution whose solute concentration is lower that that inside a cell
NADP+
a coenzyme similar to NAD and present in most living cells but serves as a reductant in different metabolic processes
Heterotroph
an organism that depends on complex organic substances for nutrition
Golgi Apparatus
A system of membranes in eukaryotic cells that modifies protiens for export by the cell
Evolution
(biology) the sequence of events involved in the evolutionary development of a species or taxonomic group of organisms
Atom
(physics and chemistry) the smallest component of an element having the chemical properties of the element
Colonial Organism
a collection of genetically identical cells that live together in a close connected group
Natural selection
a natural process resulting in the evolution of organisms best adapted to the environment
Hydrogen bond
a chemical bond consisting of a hydrogen atom between two electronegative atoms (e.g., oxygen or nitrogen) with one side be a covalent bond and the other being an ionic bond
Carrier protein
a protein that transports specific substances across a biological membrane
Microfilament
A polymer chain of the protein actin: the smallest strand in the cytoskelton
Hydrolysis
a chemical reaction in which water reacts with a compound to produce other compounds
Diffusion
the process, by which, molecules move from an area of greater concentration to an area of lesser concentration
Growth rate
the rate of increase in size per unit time
Density independent factor
affects populations regardless of their density
Alcohol
a substituted hydrocarbon that contains 1 or more hydroxly groups
Organ System
a group of organs that interact to perform a set of related tasks
Food chain
(ecology) a community of organisms where each member is eaten in turn by another member
Birth rate
the ratio of live births in an area to the population of that area
Nuclear Envelope
A double membrane that surrounds the nucleus of eukaryotic cells
Chlorophyll
green pigment in plants that absorbs light energy used to carry out photosynthesis
Nucleotide
The building block of a nucleic acid, consisting of a five-carbon sugar covalently bonded to a nitrogenous bas and a phosphate group.
Facilitated Diffusion
a process in which substances move down their concentration gradient across the cell membrane with the assistance of carrier proteins
Metabolism
the organic processes (in a cell or organism) that are necessary for life
Exponential Growth
population growth pattern where a population grows faster as it increases in size
Proton
a stable particle with positive charge equal to the negative charge of an electron
Immigration
movement of individuals into an area occupied by an existing population
Ozone
a colorless gas (O3) soluble in alkalis and cold water
Chemical reaction
(chemistry) a process in which one or more substances are changed into others
Decomposer
organisms in an ecosystem that break down organic material (dead organisms, their waste, etc.)
Endocytosis
the process by which the cell surrounds and engulfs substances
Peptide bond
bond formed by OH and O, used to connect 2 amino acids
Chemosynthesis
synthesis of carbohydrate from carbon dioxide and water
Primary electron acceptor
A specialized molecule sharing the reaction center with the pair of reaction-center chlorophyll a molecules; it accepts an electron from one of these two chlorophylls.
Commensalism
the relation between two different kinds of organisms when one receives benefits from the other without damaging it
Spindle Fiber
One of the microtubles that extend across a dividing eukaryotic cell; assists in the movement of chromosomes
Trophic level
each step in a food chain or food web
Logistic model
a population model in which exponential growth is limited by a density-dependent factor.
Life expectancy
an expected time to live as calculated on the basis of statistical probabilities
Biology
the science that studies living organisms
Crista
A fold of the inner membrane of the mitochondria
Carrying capacity
largest number of individuals of a population that a environment can support
Stroma
the dense colorless framework of a chloroplast
Tissue
in most multi-cellular organisms, a group of similar cells that carry out a common function
Exergonic reaction
A spontaneous chemical reaction in which there is a net release of free energy.
DNA
(biochemistry) a long linear polymer found in the nucleus of a cell and formed from nucleotides and shaped like a double helix
Limiting factor
factor that causes the growth of a population to decrease
Granum
a stack of thylakoids
Bond
chemical linkage between atoms
Nucleolus
The structure in which ribosomes are synthesized and partially assemble; found in most nulei
Chemosynthesis
synthesis of carbohydrate from carbon dioxide and water
Product
a chemical substance formed as a result of a chemical reaction
Chromosome
DNA and protein in a coiled, rod-shaped form that occurs during cell division
Sodium-Potassium Pump
a carrier protein that actively transports K+ ions into and Na+ ions out of cells
Visible spectrum
the portion of sunlight perceived by the human eye as various colors
Phagocytosis
a type of endocytosis in which a cell engulfs large particles or whole cells
Endoplasmic Reticulum
A system of membranous tubes and sacs in eukaroyotic cells that functions as a path along which molecules move from one part of the cell to the other
Inbreeding
the act of mating closely related individuals
Wave length
the horizontal distance from one wave crest th the next wave crest
Nucleic acid
(biochemistry) any of various macromolecules composed of nucleotid chains that are vital constituents of all living cells
Monomer
a simple compound whose molecules can join together to form polymers
Nucleus
in an atom, the core of protons and neutrons; in a eukaryotic cell, the organelle that contains most of the DNA and directs most of the cell's activities
Selectively Permeable Membrane
A membrane that keeps some molecules out but allows others to pass through
ATP synthase
protein structure in cell mitochondria that uses energy from H+ ions to convert ADP to ATP
Organic compound
any compound of carbon and another element or a radical
Ion
a particle that is electrically charged (positive or negative)
Turgor Pressure
water pressure within a plant cell
Predator
any animal that lives by preying on other animals
Macromolecule
any very large complex molecule
Ion channel
a membrane protein that provides a passage way across the cell membrane through which the ion can diffuse
Unicellular organism
an organism made of a single cell
Parasite
an animal or plant that lives in or on a host (another animal or plant)
Population Density
number of individuals per unit area
Cell Theory
the theory that all living things are made up of cells , that cells are the basic unit of organisms , and that cells come only from existing cells.
Exocytosis
a process in which a vesicle inside the cell fuses with the cell membrane and releases its contents into the external environment
Phagocyte
a cell that in engages in phagocytosis
Accessory pigment
Compound other than chlorophyll that absorbs light at different wave lengths then chlorophyll
Archaebacteria
considered ancient life forms that evolved separately from bacteria and blue-green algae
Ionic bond
a chemical bond in which one atom loses an electron to form a positive ion and the other atom gains to electron to form a negative ion
Cell
a membrane-bound structure that is the basic unit of life
Cytoplasm
The region of a cell between the cell membrane and the nucleus
Species area effect
pattern of species richness; larger areas usually contain more species than larger areas
Monosaccharide
The simplest carbohydrate, active alone or serving as a monomer for disaccharides and polysaccharides. Also known as simple sugars, the molecular formulas of monosaccharides are generally some multiple of CH20.
Detritivore
obtain energy from plant and animal remains and other dead matter
Gene
(genetics) a segment of DNA that is involved in producing a polypeptide chain
Pinocytosis
a type of endocytosis in which a cell engulfs solutes or fluids
Photosynthesis
the process by which plants and some other organisms use light energy to power chemical reactions that convert water and carbon dioxide into oxygen and high energy carbohydrates such as sugars and starches
Exponential Model
Describes a population that increases rapidly after only a few generations
Chemiosmosis
A process for synthesizing ATP using the energy of an electrochemical gradient and the ATP synthase enzyme.
Polysaccharide
any of a class of carbohydrates whose molecules contain chains of monosaccharide molecules
Condensation reaction
A reaction in which two monomers are combined covalently through the removal of the equivalent of a water molecule.
Host
an animal or plant that nourishes and supports a parasite
C3 plant
Plant species that fix carbon exclusively through the calvin cycle
Ribonucleic acid
(RNA) part of the genetic material that organisms inherited from their parents
Polymer
a naturally occurring or synthetic compound consisting of large molecules made up of a linked series of repeated simple monomers
Concentration Gradient
the difference of a concentration of substance across a space
Osmosis
the diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane
Herbivore
consumers that eat only producers
Peripheral Protein
A protein attached to eitheir the interior of exterior surface of the cell membrane
Homeostasis
metabolic equilibrium actively maintained by several complex biological mechanisms that operate via the autonomic nervous system to offset disrupting changes
Ecosystem
a system formed by the interaction of a community of organisms with their physical environment
Integral Protein
A protein imbedded in the bilayer of the cell membrane
Thylakoid
a flattened membranous sac inside a chlorplast; contains most of the compontents involvolved in light reations and photosynthesis
Contractile Vacuole
an organelle in protists that expels water
Reduction reaction
a reactant gains one or more electrons, thus becoming a negative charge
Net primary productivity
Rate at which primary producers capture and store energy in tissues
Death rate
the ratio of deaths in an area to the population of that area
Actin
One of the two protein filaments in a muscle cell that function in contraction
Caroteniod
other compounds found in the thylakoid membrane, also function as accessory pigments
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
The portion of the endoplasmic reticulum that contains attached ribosomes
Parasitism
the relation between two different kinds of organisms in which one receives benefits from the other by causing damage to it (usually not fatal damage)
Free energy
The portion of a system's energy that can perform work when temperature and pressure are uniform throughout the system.
Mutualism
the relation between two different species of organisms that are interdependent
Cilium
A short, hairlike organelle that extends from a cell and functions in locomotion
Adenosine triphosphate
principal chemical compound that cell uses to store energy
Catalyst
(chemistry) a substance that initiates or accelerates a chemical reaction without itself being affected
Passive transport
the movement of substances across the cell membrane without the use of cell energy
Pigment
a colored chemical compound that absorbs light, producing color
Biochemical pathway
a series of chemical reactions im which the product of one reaction is consumed in the next reaction
Lysosome
A organelle containing digestive enzymes, existing primarily in animal cells
Light reactions
The steps in photosynthesis that occur on the thylakoid membranes of the chloroplast and that convert solar energy to the chemical energy of ATP and NADPH, evolving oxygen in the process.
Producer
the bottom of the energy pyramid; includes any organism that makes its own food from raw materials
Nuclear Pore
A small hole in the nuclear envelope through which substances pass between the nucleus and the cytoplasm
Fatty acid
any of a class of aliphatic monocarboxylic acids that form part of a lipid molecule and can be derived from fat by hydrolysis
Emigration
movement of individuals out of a population
Species diversity
the variety of organisms in a community
Lipid
macromolecules used for energy storage, cell membranes, and waterproofing
Food web
(ecology) a community of organisms where there are several interrelated food chains
Vesicle
a membrane-bound sac in a eukaryotic cell that contains materials involved in endocytosis, exocytosis, or transport within a cell.
Ribozyme
RNA molecule capable of acting as an enzyme.
Ecology
the branch of biology concerned with the relations between organisms and their environment
Adhesion
an attraction between molecules of different substances
Endosymbiosis
a process in which unicellular organisms engulfed other cells, which became endosymbiants and eventually organelles in the host cell. gave rise to red and green algae., a process in which unicellular organisms engulfed other cells, which became endosymbiants and eventually organelles in the host cell. gave rise to red and green algae.
Equilibrium
a state that exists when the concentration of a substance is equal throughout a space
Organ
several types of body tissues that together perform a function
Mass
is the measure of the amount of matter in an object.
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
The portion of the endoplasmic reticulum that lacks attached ribosomes
Active Transport
the movement of a substance across the cell membrane against a concentration gradient; requires the cell to expend energy
Carbohydrate
compound made up of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen in a 1:2:1 ratio, they are the main energy storage molecules of living things, they are also called "sugars")
Reactant
a chemical substance that is present at the start of a chemical reaction
Amino acid
organic compounds containing an amino group and a carboxylic acid group
Functional group
A group of atoms that confers a special property on a carbon-based molecule
Autotroph
An organism that obtains organic food molecules without eating other organisms or substanes derived from other organisms. These use energy from the sun or from the oxidation of inorganic substances to make organic molecules from inorganic ones.
State
(chemistry) the three traditional states of matter are solids (fixed shape and volume) and liquids (fixed volume and shaped by the container) and gases (filling the container)
Triglyceride
3 fatty acids (chains of hydrocarbons) bonded to a glycerol, most fats are eaten and absorbed in this form, carbohydrate
Cytolysis
the busting of a cell
Capillarity
a phenomenon associated with surface tension and resulting in the elevation or depression of liquids in capillaries
Organism
a living thing that has (or can develop) the ability to act or function independently
Wax
type of structural lipid consisting of a long fatty acid chain joined to a long alcohol chain
Nucleus
a part of the cell containing DNA and RNA and responsible for growth and reproduction
Carbon fixation
The incorporation of carbon from carbon dioxide into an organic compound by an autotrophic organism.
Species richness
the number of species a community contains
Consumer
an organism that obtains energy by eating other organisms
Sexual reproduction
reproduction involving the union or fusion of a male and a female gamete
Oxidation reaction
a chemical reaction in which a reactant loses one or more electrons such that the reactant becomes more positive in charge
Polypeptide
A polymer (chain) of many amino acids linked together by peptide bonds.
Electron
an elementary particle with negative charge
Dipeptide
a formation from two amino acids combined together by means of a condensation reaction.
Energy level
a definite stable energy that a physical system can have
Cell Wall
A ridged structure that surrounds the cells of plants, fungi, many protists, and most bacteria
Compound
(chemistry) a substance formed by chemical union of two or more elements or ingredients in definite proportion by weight
Covalent bond
a chemical bond that involves sharing a pair of electrons between atoms in a molecule
Chromatin
The DNA and proteins in a non-dividing cell
Neutron
an elementary particle with 0 charge and mass about equal to a proton
Photosynthesis
the process by which plants and some other organisms use light energy to power chemical reactions that convert water and carbon dioxide into oxygen and high energy carbohydrates such as sugars and starches
Atomic number
Equals the number of proton in th nucleus of an atom
Prokaryote
a unicellular organism that lacks a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles
Eukaryote
a cell that contains a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles
Dispersion
the spatial distribution of individuals within the population
Plastid
An organelle of plant cells that contain starch, fats, or pigments
Microtuble
A hollow tube of protein that constitutes the largest strand in the cytoskelton
Evolve
change in a group of organisms over time
Cytosol
The gelatin like aqueous fluid that bathes the organelles on the inside of the cell membrane
Multicellular organism
organism made up of many cells

Deck Info

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