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Wildlife Conservation & Ecology -- Exam 01


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Under whose administration did the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service come about?
FDR in the year 1940.
Combined Bureau of Biological Survey with the Bureau of Fisheries
Which agency administers the commercial fisheries in the U.S.?
What cabinet-level Department is it in?
Commercial marine fisheries are administered by the National Marine Fisheries Service
(a component of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration in the Department of Commerce)
Who is credited with the term "conservation" and who was he?
Gifford Pinchot (1907), a forester who served in the administration of President Theodore Roosevelt. Disliked terms "preservation" and "protection".
Conservation: health of natural world; prevent exploitation

(page 2 - footnotes, + class notes)

In wildlife management, ecological knowledge is applied in what three basic management approaches?
(1) PRESERVATION: when nature
is allowed to take its course without human intervention;
(2) DIRECT MANIPULATION: when animal populations are trapped, shot, poisoned, and stocked; and
(3) INDIRECT MANIPULATION: when vegetation, water, or other key components of wildlife habitat are altered.

Is wildlife management basic science in the sense of physics or chemistry? Is it pure technology in the sense of engineering?
Wildlife management draws from those fields, as well as from zoology, botany, mathematics, and several other disciplines. Despite its strong and obvious associations with the natural
sciences, wildlife management also entails elements of art; that is, information from a variety of disciplines must be integrated and used skillfully with logic and

Who was Aldo Leopold and what were some of his major accomplishments?
Often known as the 'father' of wildlife management. Helped organize the Wilderness Society (1935). Modern wildlife management is usually associated with Leopold's publication 'Game Management'
In general, what three step sequence do field biologists follow when investigating a problem?
(1) search journals and
other scientific literature for parallel situations that may suggest solutions
(2) determine reasons for the difficulty using field and/or laboratory techniques, and
(3) implement and evaluate remedies, the latter frequently requiring public involvement.

What is the biosphere?
the part of the Earth that extends from a few hundred meters beneath the surface to several kilometers into the atmosphere
What is the critical link between the nonliving world and essentially all forms of animal life?
the ecosystem
What is primary production?
energy incorporated into green plants in photosynthesis
What is the second law of thermodynamics and how does it pertain to wildlife?
transformation of energy is not 100% efficient.
rule of thumb: only about 10% of energy is transferred from one trophic level to the next
What is a general approximation of how much energy is converted from one link to the next in the food chain?
only about 10% of energy is transferred from one trophic level to the next
What happens to energy that is not lost as heat?
in growing animals, the intake of calories must exceed the expenditure of energy.
A growing population of animals, requires a positive energy balance
What are 'producers', 'primary consumers', and 'secondary consumers?'
example of prairie ecosystem:
Producers (bottom of pyramid): grasses
Primary consumers (next level): bison
Secondary consumers: wolves that prey on bison

What are the two consequences of the inefficient transfer of energy from one trophic level to the next?
1) Less energy is available at each successive trophic level in an ecosystem
2) The length of a food chain is limited. Very little energy remains after three or four steps
What is a 'range of tolerance' for an organism?
Range of tolerance: ecological amplitude; when either the upper or the lower optimal limit of the range is exceeded, the efficiency of metabolic or reproductive processes falters and organisms begin to experience difficult circumstances.
- Plants: most plants have clear limits in their tolerance for salt, but those thriving in tidal marshes or other saline environments can tolerate more (halotypes)
- Animals: Loon's tolerance for temperature, (example from class).

What environmental factors comprise a range of tolerance?
Thermal gradient, security of wildlife populations, precipitation, food and cover ... etc.
What does the term 'ecological equivalent' mean? Give an example.
Species living in different geographical areas but fulfilling similar roles (niches) in their respective communities. Example: capercaillie (Europe) and spruce grouse (North America) fill the same niche in different places: both feed almost exclusively on pine needles
What terms are used to define a community in terms of its successional stage?
Primary succession: where no community ever existed
Secondary succession: where remnants of a previous community exist (ex: burned-over field or clearcut forest)
What are the types of symbiotic relationships?
1) Parasitism - organism (parasite) benefits off of host (who negatively benefits)
2) Commensalism - relationship between organisms where one benefits and other is not affected
3) Mutualism - both species involved benefit. Many times it is obligatory

What are two types of mutualism?
1) Obligative mutualism - required for the survival of either member of the pair
2) Facultative mutualism: bond may be broken without fatal results
What is a biome?
large geographical units having similar vegetation
What is dynamic equilibrium?
community is self-perpetuating
Why is the concept of succession important for wildlife management?
each species thrives only in those successional stages that produce rather specific arrangements for food, cover and water.
much of wildlife management deals with ways of manipulating habitat for benefit of selected species.
Why is the concept of resilience important for conservation?
some communities and ecosystems are more resilient than others. However, resilience has its limits - human disturbances are tolerated within reasonable limits
What is the difference between a generalist species and a specialist species?
Generalists have a greater range of optimal conditions than specialists
What is the "niche" of a species?
each species' unique functional role in ecosystem - its 'job'. A niche is multidimensional, generally including time of hunting, size of prey, and location of prey.
Example: brown bear's niche - large omnivore that feeds on large + small prey in Yellowstone
What is the definition of population?
a group of individuals of the same species that inhabits an area
What are 5 characteristics of populations?
1) density
2) birth rate/natality
3) death rate/mortality
4) age distribution
5) sex ratios

What is the difference between fecundity and fertility?
Fecundity: potential number of offspring
Fertility: % of eggs that are fertile
What are the conditions under which a population will experience exponential growth?
When food, cover and space are abundant, and diseases, parasites, and predators exert little influence. Birth rate is maximum and death death rate minimum (primarily old age).
Basically, nothing limiting population growth. Yeast cells and humans are the only species that really show this type of growth.
(Graph looks like a J)

What is density dependence? Give 2 examples of density dependent factors.
Cause higher mortality rates or decreased birth rate as population increases. Acts to restrict population growth.
Examples: food supply and disease.
It has been observed that animals tend to give birth to many more individuals than will survive to breeding age, true or false.
True! Animals generally produce more offspring than necessary to replace parents.
Why can't a population increase exponentially forever? List four reasons.
1) Food supply
2) Space/cover availability
3) Predators
4) Disease

What are the lessons of the Isle Royale study?
1) Predator-prey systems are not a neatly controlled phenomenon
2) Predator and prey populations fluctuate not in response to one or two simple variables, but instead to myriad variables (disease in either pop., genetic variation, weather, random events)
What are three basic kinds of mating systems? What are the two types of polygamy?
1) Monogamy - seasonal or lifetime
2) Polygamy - polyandry (several males per female) and polygyny (several females per male)
3) Promiscuity - indiscriminate mating

What is the difference between additive and compensatory mortality?
Example: 100 deer.
Only food for 80.
Compensatory - 20 could starve, bad weather could kill 10, wolves could eat 15. Instead of 45 deer dying, only 25 die.
Additive - example: tornado -- 55 die regardless of other factors.

What is a life table, what data is used to create one, and how is the information used from a life table?
A life table is a systematic means of describing mortality as it affects various age groups in a population. Used to compare mortality between populations.
See page 11 of Chapter 5.
The only way to sample a wildlife population is by counting the animals, true or false?
- Estimates based on statistical examples (counting inanimate objects: droppings, nests, dens, etc)
- Capture-recapture ratio
- Index - quantitative measure of population

How rapidly are we approaching our own carrying capacity as humans? Are all countries of the world still able to meet their own demands for resources such as food?
Incredibly rapidly. India and Bangladesh have surpassed their carrying capacities.

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