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Cerveny Geography Final


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Stream of third order
merging or joining of two second order streams
What happens when two streams of the same order merge?
the merged stream will be one order higher
Stream Discharge
Amount of run in the river/stream
How to calculate Stream Discharge?
Velocity x (width x depth)
Drainage Basin
Land area that contributes runoff to river systems
Drainage Divide
Boundary between drainage basins (the higher the elevation)
Stream Network
The system of the main river channel plus its tributaries
Stream of First Order
No tributaries
Stream of Second Order
Merging or joining of two first order streams
What happens when two streams of different order merge
the merged streams will be the same order as the higher order stream
Hydrological Cycle
The path water takes in our environment
How does water come from the ground?
evaporation from soil, groundwater, runoff
How does water come from plants?
Transpiration, animals; respiration and perspiration
How does water come from the atmosphere?
evaporation, precipitation, and clouds
Groundwater runoff released over large periods of time (the average flow of the stream)
Overland flow (the extra water running off land from a storm)
Stream Hydrograph
This graph plots flow (of the stream) against time
Things that shape hydography
size of basin, type of surface, shape of shed, slope, and intensity/duration of rain
Fluvial Landforms
landforms created by running water
The wearing away of land and soil through the process of running water. Ex gully and arroyos
the placement of the material carried by running water. Ex. Deltas
Accelerated Erosion
The removal of soil much faster than it can be formed. Ex. overgrazing, forest fires
Splash Erosion
Direct force of falling drops on base soil causing a geyser like splashing in which soil particles are lifted and then dropped into new positions
Stream Material Transport
Three mechanisms: Suspension: Material is held up by the water in the stream Dissolved: material is mixed with water Bed Load: sand, gravel, and cobbles move by rolling or sliding from water flow
Stream Gradiation
The slow reduction in the height of the headwaters of a stream through time as the stream eroded away the surrounding materials
the part of the river with the most velocity and is the deepest part
form where erosion is taking place. The thalweg hits it and because of the speed erosion takes place
form where deposition is taking place because of slow moving water. AKA pointbars
Oxbow lake
because of erosion and deposition the loops in the meandering rives get bigger. They then can get cut off fromt he rest of the river making an oxbow lake.
Meandering Scar
When an oxbow lake dries up
Meandering Stream
The river has only one main channel that wanders (or meanders) from side to side of the floodplain. Ex. Mississippi
Braided Stream
The flow is divided into multiple threads and these rejoin and subdivide as new sandbars with the river form. Ex. Gila River
Two elements that make up the most of earth
Oxygen and Silicon
Minerals are made of...?
elements or combinations of elements
Rocks are made up of...?
Minerals or combinations of minerals
Igneous Rock
formed from cooling molten magma. Ex plutonic (intrusive) and volcanic (extrusive)
Sedimentary Rock
formed by deposition and compaction. Ex. Sandstone, limestone
Metamorphic Rock
formed by subjecting rocks to tremendous heat and pressure. Ex Limestone=Marble and Carbon=Diamond
Oceanic Crust
Made up of dense iron magnesium silicate rocks
Continental Crust
Thicker, less dense made up of sodium potassium aluminum silicate rocks, like granite
Transition between crust and mantle
Alfred Wegener
Came up with the theory of continental drift and the supercontinent: Pangea
Transform (conservative) boundaries
When two plates of the same density collide and because being the same density grind past each other. Cause Mountains. Ex. Himalayas because of India crashing into Asia
Convergent (destructive) boundaries
When two plates of different density collide. Because they are different densities the less dense plate will thrust over the more dense plate.
Downplunging of one plate beneath another because they are different densities
Divergent (constructive) boundaries
When two plates move apart from each other
Pyroclastic Flow
Flow of gases and lava that move rapidly down a volcano
Fragmented material produced by a volcanic eruption. AKA pyroclastic material
Indonesian term for a volcanic created mudflow Mass wasting + Fluvial + Tectonic
Effusive eruption
lava flows like a thick, sticky liquid. low viscosity
Explosive Eruption
Very gaseous with a lot of pyroclastic material
Strato Volcano
Explosive with rocks, gases, and ash. High cone shaped with deep steep sides. Violently explodes and destroys center area creating an impression called the CALDERA
Shield Volcanoes
Groups of tunnels that are active over long periods of time creating broad mountains. Mostly located in oceanic areas, Created by hotspots.
Basalt Flood
When a large eruption takes place and a layer of basalt is scattered around.
Lava tube
Long \"worm-like\" cave that is formed as molten lava flows through a tube formation of older hardened lava.
Volcanic Explosivity Index. VEI 8 is a supervolcano
Sudden yielding of the rock under unequal stress
Normal Faulting
One rock surface is raised or lowered in relation to the surface next to it.
Transcurrent Fault
Movement is horizontal. Only a thin fault line is traceable across the surface.
Safety in an Earthquake
Stand in a doorway, or crouch under a desk or table. Stay away frm buildings, trees, overpasses, and underpasses
Wave created by undersea earthquake
Mass Wasting
The downslope movement of earth materials as a result of gravity. Transports materials to lower elevations where streams transport them
Bulging Toe
Land flow created by an earth flow
Talus Slope
created by landslides. Ex. south side of \"A\" mountain
Water saturated sandy layer is shaken during an earthquake and acts as liquid and flows downhill toward the ocean
Soil Creep
Very slow process of downslope movement of sediments
Freeze Thaw
Ice moves particle up perpendicular but when ice melts particles drop vertically according to gravity
Coastal Erosion
Waves crashing into the shore can gradually erode away the land and create new landforms
Thick wedge-shaped deposits of sand along a body of water
Beachdrifting and longshore surrent created an arm of sand across a bay.
A spit that ties an island to the mainland
Barrier Island
A narrow strip of sand dunes, beaches, and marshes located a few miles off shore
Coral Reefs
Undersea worms that build up around each other. When they die more worms build up around their stony exterior.
Fringe Reef
Reef built out from shore
Barrier Reef
Separated from an island or landmass by an enclosed water area.
A reef which has an interior lagoon and needs no land
Daily changes in sea level. Two periods of rising tide (flood tides) and two periods of falling tides (ebb tides).
Two forces that cause Tides
Gravitational attraction of the moon and centrifugal force (earth\'s spin pulls water away).
Spring Tide
Moon and sun are aligned so their gravities act together and so the sea rise is much higher. Neep tide is the opposite.
caused by winds moving over a water surface
Low, round-crested linear waves
The area over which winds build waves: The bigger the fetch, the bigger the waves.
Collapsing Breaker
The base of the wave slides down the front of the wave.
Spilling Breaker
The crest (top) of the wave slides down the front top the wave.
Plunging Breaker
The crest shoots forward of the base of the wave in a smooth curve. Classic surfer\'s wave.
A solid structure built at an angle from a shore to prevent erosion from currents, tides, and waves, or trap sand.
Aeolian Process
Landform changes created by wind
Loose particles lying on the ground are uplifted up into the air or rolled along the ground.
Shallow depression produced by deflation
Desert pavement
Deflation has blown away smaller particles leaving large remains that are a solid surface.
Wind Abrasion
When wind drives sand and dust particles against exposed rock or soil surface causing it to be worn away by impact of sand.
Crescent dune
Hill of sand which is a quarter-moon or crescent shaped
The steep slope of the leeward side of a crescent dune
Traverse Dunes
Long ridges of sand seperated by long troughs or valleys of sand.
Parabolic Dune
Occur where vegetation and strong winds occur. Sand blow and gets stuck in the vegetation.
Seif or Longitudinal Dune
Long narrow ridge oriented parallel to the direction of the prevailing wind
Star Dunes
Huge dune mountains that are found in erg deserts
parallel grooves in the soft slits of old dried-up lakebeds.
A body of flowing ice formed on land by the fall and compaction of snow
Cirque Glacier
Highest; ice sits in its own pocket called a cirque
Lake in the pocket of a glacier
Piedmont glacier
ice at the bottom of mountain
Ablation (losing mass)
Lower part of glacier. If ablation is greater than accumulation it retreats.
Accumulation (gaining mass)
Upper part of glacier. If accumulation is greater than ablation it moves down and expands.
Glacial abrasion
Ice scrapes away rocks on sides and bottom of glaciers as it moves down.
Glacial plucking
Melt water gets in cracks then refreezes popping out rocks
Rock and debris eroded by glacier
Latoral Moraine
glacier pushing up on sides
Terminal Moraine
Glacier pushing at the bottom (piedmont)
Medial Moraine
Two glaciers or latoral moraines pushing together
Sharp ridge between two cirque glaciers
Where 3 glaciers cirques on a mountain
Glacial Trough
The carve a glacier makes
Crack between the glacier and the mountain. Often covered by a thin layer of snow.
Cracks in glacial ice
Isostatic Depression
The weigt of ice is so great that the land is depressed sometimes to the point of being below sea level
Ice Shelf
large plate of moving ice that has slid out on top of the ocean. Can be hundreds of feet thick.
Formed by pieces breaking off continental glaciers and falling into the ocean. Only find icebergs around Greenland and Antarctica.
Meltwater Stream
A river created by water from melting ice from glacier.
Boulder pushed by a glacier
Debris carried ahead of the Glacier. Continental Glaciers only have terminal moraine.
Recessional Moraine
Smaller moraine that forms behind the terminal moraine
Hill that looks like upside down spoon
Who dies the most from Avalanches?
Snow mobilers
Cornice fall avalanches
Snow builds up on mountain top then breaks off
Water in skin freezes and ruptures. Needs to be below 28 degrees Farenheit.
Water evaporates in cracks leaving salt. As those crystals grow cracks get bigger and breaks the rock
Ridge that forms when a glacier melts
glacial troughs fill with sea water

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