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INDV 101 Exam 1


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Id, Ego, or Superego: The pleasure principle
Id, Ego, or Superego: present at birth
Id, Ego, or Superego: Wants its needs satisfied, and wants it satisfied now
Id, Ego, or Superego: Must be delayed by the ego
Id, Ego, or Superego: The reality Principle
Id, Ego, or Superego: 0-3 years of life
Id, Ego, o Superego: Takes external reality into account when the Id wants to satisfy its urges.
Id, Ego, or Superego: Conscience & Ego Ideal
Conscience – stuff you shouldn’t do Ego ideal – what you should do
Id, Ego, or Superego: Moral – where right and wrong lie – striving for perfection • Learn right from wrong via mom & dad, and later from society
Id, Ego, or Superego: The "guilty conscious" principle
o The combined memory of our ancestors, human and pre-human; archetypes are stored here
Collective Unconscious
Preference for exploration, tolerance of the unfamiliar o High – open, easy going o Low – introverted
Openness to Experience
Degree of organization, goal-orientation o High – organized, ambitious, clean, reliable, goal-orientated, responsible o Low – unreliable, disorganized, lazy
Degree of interpersonal interaction/activity level o High – better grades, outgoing, satisfied o Low - Shy, timid, passive
Quality of interpersonal orientation o High – more likeable, friendly, cooperative, compassionate, sensitive, sympathetic o Low – antagonistic, unfriendly, cold
Degree of emotional stability o High – unpleasant events, more negative, nervous, worry more o Low – calmer, more positive
Blocking a wish or desire from conscious expression; from the conscious to the unconscious
Refusing to believe a reality
Attributing an unconscious impulse, attitude, or behavior to another
Expressing an impulse by its opposite
Reaction Formation
Returning to an earlier form of expressing an impulse
Satisfying an impulse with a substitute object
Adopting the behavior of another individual close to oneself
Tests that indirectly measures motives, desires, or emotions by asking the subject to respond to an ambiguous stimulus (such as such as an inkblot, a vague photograph, or an open-ended sentence) They are preferred assessment method for psychoanalytic t
Projective tests
This test assumes that what we see in its 10 symmetrical inkblots reflects our inner feelings and conflict
Rorschach’s Inkblot test
In this test, participants are shown ambiguous pictures and told to write a story to go along with the picture. The stories are then rated for themes
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
Preferred method of assessment for trait and humanistic theories
Objective tests
The most widely used objective test in clinical work & psychological research; Assesses disorders (e.g., depression, hysteria, paranoia) rather than normal personality traits
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)
Assesses Cattell’s 16 factors of personality
Cattell 16-PF
Assesses Big Five Factor Model
According to Allport, these influence all behavior (most people don’t have these)
Cardinal Traits
According to Allport, these influence wide range of behavior
central traits/dispositions
According to Allport, these are peripheral characteristics & preferences; they are specific.
Secondary traits/dispositions
Focuses on roles of ethnicity, gender, culture, and socioeconomic status in personality formation, behavior, and mental processes
Sociocultural Perspective
The process of adaptation in which immigrants and native groups identify with a new, dominant culture by learning about that culture and making behavioral and attitudinal changes
Relies on observational learning (Based on Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory)
A component of Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory; our beliefs that we can bring about desired changes through our own efforts
Self-efficacy expectations
One component of individual psychology; o The self-aware aspect of personality that strives to overcome obstacles and achieve its full potential
Creative Self
o Feelings of inferiority hypothesized by Adler to serve as a central motivating force
inferiority complex
A competition for resources
Sibling Rivalry
Freud's Stages Sexual calm Focus on social interaction (same-sex)
A cognitive view of gender-typing in that believes that once one is aware of their sex, they begin to blend their self-expectations and self-esteem with prescribed gender roles in their culture
gender-schema theory
Freud's Stages Genitals Mature Sexual relationships Mutually-beneficial relationships
Genital Stage
Freud's Stages Genitals; Oedipal & Electra Complexes 3-5 years Fixation --> promiscuity, aggressive sexual drive frustration --> impotence
Freud's Stages Mouth, weaning fixation --> sarcastic, hostile overindulging --> optimism, gullible, overly independent
Oral Stage
Freud's Stages Anus, Toilet Training 1-3 years anal expulsive --> messy, destructive anal retentive --> clean, orderly, perfection
Anal Stage
Birth Order: Manipulative and Charming; perfectionist
Only Child, Youngest Child
Birth Order Relaxed Negotiators
Middle Children
Birth Order Leaders
First Child
Psychoanalytic Perspective
-The most important causes of behavior are motives, especially unconscious motives -Personality is determined by the interplay of inner conflicts & their resolution -Personality is set by adolescence
Psychoanalytic Perspective
Hierarchy of Needs: -Physiological or Survival Needs (Basic Needs) -Safety Needs -Love, affection, and belongingness needs -Esteem Needs -Need for Self-Actualization
16 Factors/Factor Analysis
-Argued that little girls do not feel inferior to boys (because they have a penis) -Social relationships are more important than unconscious sexual/aggressive impulses
Karen Horney
Everyday Functioning
Conscious Ego
What you’ve forgotten --> all experiences that you always have access to recall
Personal Unconscious
Female component of the male psyche
Male component of the female psyche
o Dangerous, primitive, passionate parts; spontaneity, passion, creativity
The Shadow
-The comfortable projection of self to the outside world -Projecting, but maintaining reality (who we’re genuine with and who we hide our flaws from)
The Persona
Achieving wholeness/unity
The Self
Carl Jung
Analytical Psychology
Individual Psychology
Approach to personality that is more optimistic than the others. It is most interested in unique potential.
Humanistic Approach
A persistent expression of esteem for the value of a person, but not necessarily an unqualified acceptance of all of the person’s behaviors (acceptance regardless of behavior)
Unconditional Positive Regard
A judgment of another person’s value on the basis of the acceptability of that person’s behaviors (acceptance only when well-behaved)
Conditional Positive Regard
Standards by which the value of a person is judged
Conditions of Worth
Axis ? Diagnosed mental disorder
Axis I
Axis ? Personality disorders & mental retardation
Axis II
Axis ? Relevant medical conditions
Axis III
Axis ? Psychosocial & environmental problems
Axis IV
Axis ? Current level of psychological, social & occupational functioning
Axis V
o Includes fears of social or performance situations in which they might embarrass or humiliate themselves or fear of being criticized o Lead to avoidance of social situations
Social Phobia
o Fear of specific objects or situations o Treated with systematic desensitization
Specific phobia
fear of high places
fear of tight, small places
o A strong fear of being away from a safe place like home or from a safe person o A strong fear of being trapped in a place from which escape might be difficult or where help may be unavailable o Possibly accompanied with panic attacks
⬢ Excessive worry or anxiety about multiple issues that lasts 6 months or more
Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)
Intense, short-lived, recurring attacks of overwhelming anxiety or terror
Panic Disorder
Persistent, uncontrollable thoughts
intrusive, inappropriate actions that often prevent or reduce anxiety associated with obsessions
⬢ The person has been exposed to a traumatic event ⬢ The traumatic event is persistently revisited in one (or more) of the following ways: o Re-experiencing o Avoidance o Hyperarousal
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
⬢ Overwhelming feelings of sadness, despair, hopelessness ⬢ Loss of interest in pleasurable activities ⬢ At least 2 weeks feeling sad every day, all day; or losing interest in things you enjoy to do for at least 2 weeks every day, all day
Major depressive disorder
⬢ Change in mood is much more extreme than normal given a change in season
Seasonal Affective Disorder
⬢ Extreme highs of mania & extreme lows of major depression ⬢ Manic episode o Pressured speech o Rapid flight of ideas
Bipolar Disorder
Person suddenly moves away and assumes a new identity with no memory of previous personality
Dissociative fugue
Loss of (usually personal) memory due to psychological causes (The Bourne Trilogy)
Dissociative amnesia
⬢ Two or more distinct identities or personality states o Some loss of personal memory
 Dissociative identity disorder (DID) – previously known as multiple personality disorder
• A somatoform disorder in which anxiety or unconscious conflicts are “converted” into physical symptoms that often have the effect of helping the person cope with anxiety or conflict
Conversion Disorder
Which type of Schizophrenia? o Delusions of grandeur o Delusions of persecution o Usually harmless, but may become violent if threatened
Paranoid schizophrenia
Which type of Schizophrenia? o Periods of frenzied activity alternating with periods of immobility o May stay in odd positions for hours o Waxy flexibility – a feature of catatonic schizophrenia in which people can be molded into postures that they
Catatonic schizophrenia
Which type of Schizophrenia? o Inappropriate affect and actions o Incoherent verbal behavior and silliness o Delusions and hallucinations
Disorganized schizophrenia
Which type of Schizophrenia? o Used to describe schizophrenics with mixed or unusual symptoms
Undifferentiated schizophrenia
Disorders in which people complain of physical (somatic) problems even though no physical abnormality can be found
Somatoform disorders
A somatoform disorder characterized by persistent belief that one is ill despite lack of medical findings
A somatoform disorder characterized by preoccupation with an imagined or exaggerated physical defect in one’s appearance
Body dysmorphic disorder
Which category of disorders? • Enduring pattern of experience and behavior that differs greatly from the expectations of the individual’s culture • Inflexible and pervasive across personal/social situations • Leads to clinically significant d
Personality Disorders
Which cluster of Personality Disorders? odd, eccentric
Cluster A
Which type of personality disorder and which cluster? -Distrust others and are suspicious of their motives -Pathologically jealous in the absence of evidence (cheating) -Believe that people are out to deceive and trick them
Paranoid personality disorder Cluster A
Which type of personality disorder and which cluster? -Express only a limited range of emotion in social interactions; form few if any close relationships -Are uninterested in personal relationships -Usually won’t seek therapy  happy with being
Schizoid Personality Disorder Cluster A
Which type of personality disorder and which cluster? -Have little capacity for close relationship; also eccentric in behaviors, perceptions, and thinking. -Have few close relationship because of an extreme discomfort with others -May feel magic, psy
Schizotypal Personality Disorder Cluster A
Which Cluster of Personality Disorders? dramatic, erratic
Cluster B
Which type of personality disorder and which cluster? -Exaggerate emotions and go to excessive lengths to seek attention -Tend to be females -Shallow in thinking; change their opinions often -Attention-seeking, look “sexy” or “pretty”
Histrionic personality disorder
Which type of personality disorder and which cluster? -Excessive sense of how important they are. They demand and expect to be admired and praised by others and are limited in their capacity to appreciate others’ perspectives • The Unabomber -Thi
Narcissistic personality disorder Cluster B
Which type of personality disorder and which cluster? -Actions regularly disregard and violate the rights of others. These behaviors may be aggressive or destructive and may involve breaking laws or rules, deception or theft ⬢ About 80-85% of male i
Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) Cluster B
Which type of personality disorder and which cluster? -Behave impulsively and their relationships, self-image, and emotions are unstable -A pattern of severely disturbed interpersonal relationships, self image, mood, and inhibitory control ⬢ Avoid
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) Cluster B
Which Cluster of Personality disorders? fearful, anxious
Cluster C
Which type of personality disorder and which cluster? -Are socially inhibited, usually feel inadequate and are overly sensitive to criticism -Avoid social-opportunities because of fear of criticism ⬢ This leads to their inability to learn how to fu
Avoidant personality disorder Cluster C
Which type of personality disorder and which cluster? Use submissive and clinging behavior toward others to elicit care, depending on them for initiative, reassurance, decision making, and advice
Dependent personality disorder Cluster C
Which type of personality disorder and which cluster? Sacrifice openness, spontaneity, and flexibility to pursue orderliness, control, and perfectionism
Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder Cluster C
• “sit-back, relax and say whatever comes to your mind” • Trying to get at unconscious motives, thoughts, feelings, emotions and check out the connections between events
Free Association
⬢ Said to occur when something happens where the client stops free-associating (stutter, hesitate) ⬢ Freud thought the person now felt threatened
Analysis of Resistance
all the parts of the dream we remember; what we would describe to someone else when recalling our dream
Manifest Content
hidden content of dream (such as forbidden thoughts and unconscious desires) that is represented only symbolically
Latent Content
unacceptable latent content expressed in manifest content directly but symbolically (e.g., children are symbolized as small animals)
⬢ The patient begins to treat the therapist as they treat other people in their lives⬦
What category of therapy? ⬢ Clients will improve on their own, given the right conditions o Ideal conditions are established through therapeutic relationship in which the client feels accepted & supported (regardless of their behavior)
Humanistic Therapy
3 key-ingredients for client-centered therapy
o Genuineness o Acceptance o Empathy
Fritz Perls • Directive therapy • Therapist directs clients to get in touch with feelings & resolve unfinished business • Goal is to create conditions so that client can become more self-aware & self-accepting (focus is on the “here and nowâ€
Gestalt Therapy
A collection of techniques based on learning theory designed to fix problem behavior
Behavior Therapies
reducing effect of stimulus on anxiety
Systematic desensitization
Exposure & Response prevention: systematic desensitization Flooding Aversive Conditioning
Classical Conditioning Techniques
Stimulation Satiation Token Economy Time Out Contingency Management
Operant Conditioning Techniques
A B C Theory
Activating Event Belief about Event Consequence
Social Skills Training: o keeping a record of one’s own behavior to identify problems and record successes o practice o in assertiveness training, information about the effectiveness of a response
⬢ self-monitoring ⬢ behavior rehearsal ⬢ feedback

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