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Micro Ch 5 - Kingdom Fungi


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are fungi eukaryotes or procaryotes?
what are the two groups of species of fungi?
macroscopic fungi and microscopic fungi
what group of fungi are mushrooms a part of?
what group of fungi are puffballs a part of?
what group of fungi are gill fungi a part of?
what group of fungi are molds a part of?
what group of fungi are yeasts a part of?
what are the two morphologies of microscopic fungi?
yeast or hyphae
round ovoid shaped, asexual reproduction
long filamentous fungi or molds, they branch out too look for food
microscopic fungi that exist in either yeast or hyphae form

*characteristic of some pathogenic molds

all fungi are...
heterotrophic - they need another organism for nutrition - decaying material
living off dead plants and animals
fungal parasites
live on the tissues of other organisms - none are obligate
fungal infections
what is the optimal growth temperature for fungi?
20-40 degrees Celsius
where do fungi grow?
extremely widespread distribution in many habitats
what is the fungal organization of most fungi?
most grow in loose associations or colonies
what is the fungal organization of yeast?
soft, uniform texture and appearance
hyphae divided by cross walls
vegetative hyphae
digest and absorb nutrients
reproductive hypae
produce spores for reproduction
mass of hyphae with cottony, hairy, or velvety texture
how do fungi reproduce?
primarily through spores formed on reproductive hyphae
asexual reproduction of fungi
spores are formed through budding or mitosis
how does yeast grow?
it swells on its surface called buds which then become separate cells
a chain of yeasts formed when buds remain attached in a row
variety of organic material from which fungi acquire their nutrients
nonseptate hyphae
consist of one long continuous cell not divided into individual compartments by cross walls
fungal reproductive structures
sexual reproduction of fungi
spores are formed following fusion of male and female strains and formation of sexual structures
formed by successive cleavages within a sac-like head called a sporangium, which is attached to a stalk, the sporangiophore

these spores are initially closed but are released when the sporangium ruptures

free spores not enclosed by a spore-bearing sac. they develop either by the pinching off of the tip of a special fertile hypha or by the segmentation of a preexisting vegetative hypha
which are the most common asexual spores?
what are the three most common sexual spores?

sturdy diploid spores formed when hyphae of two opposite strains (plus and minus strains) fuse and create a diploid zygote that swells and becomes covered by strong, spiny walls
created in special fungal sac. formed when two different strains or sexes join together to produce offspring
haploid sexual spores formed on the outside of a club-shaped cell called a basidium
how are fungi identified in medical specimens?
by first being isolated on special types of media and then being observed macroscopically and microscopically
what are some categories for identification of fungi?
asexual spore-forming structures and spores

hyphal type

colony texture


physiological characteristics

genetic makeup

nearly all fungi are _____ and do not require a _____ to complete their life cycles.


what are the two main types of fungal pathogens that humans are not resistant to?
primary pathogens and opportunistic pathogens
opportunistic pathogens
attack persons who are already weakened in some way
what are beneficial impacts of fungi?
decomposers of dead plants and animals

sources of antibiotics, alcohol, organic acids, and vitamins

used in making foods and in genetic studies

why is the list of opportunistic fungal pathogens increasing?
because of newer medical techniques that keep immunocompromied patients alive
Aspergillus flavus
a mold that synthesizes a potentially lethal poison called aflatoxin
what does aflotoxin do? and where does it come from?
it causes a disease in domestic animals that have eaten grain that was contaminated witht he mold Aspergillus flavus

also causes liver cancer in humans

the yeast that produces the alcohol in beer and wine and the gas that causes bread to rise

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