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Biology Chapter 4 Flash Cards


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Organic Compounds
These are carbon containing molecules that make up living things.
Functional Group
An organic based molecules has a core with other parts attached. These other parts are groups of atoms that are called functional groups.
These are molecules that contain thousands of atoms and have many functional groups.
These are the small similar building blocks that are inked together by covalent bonds. They form⬦
These are the large chainlike molecules that monomers make up.
Dehydration Synthesis
This is when one molecule of water is removed from each two monomers that are joined.
This is the process in which polymers and lipids disassemble in opposite process. It literally means “to break apart by means of water.” During the process the covalent bonds are broken between monomers with the addition of water and in the presence of enzymes.
These are molecules that contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, with an H to O ratio of 2:1.
These are the least complex of the carbohydrates and are the simple sugars.
This is what is formed when two monosaccharide link together.
These are the polymers that are linked together to create insoluble sugar. It is sometimes called a complex carbohydrate.
This is a type of polysaccharide that plants store energy in.
This is the type of polysaccharide that animals store energy in.
This is the chief component of a plant cell wall; it is a polysaccharide.
This is a modified form of cellulose that is found in insects and fungi.
Fiber is an indigestible plant material that provides health benefits such as preventing constipation, and it lowers cholesterol
Fats are non-polar, insoluble molecules that work well for storage of energy in animals.
This is a three-carbon molecule when each carbon is bearing a hydroxyl. The tree carbons make up the backbone of the fat molecule
Fatty Acids
These are long hydrocarbon chains.
This is the resulting fat molecule from the three fatty acids.
This is fatty acid that carries as many hydrogen atoms as possible.
This is a fat that is composed of fatty acids with double bonds that replace some of the hydrogen atoms.
This is a fat that has one double bond.
This is a fat that has more than one double bond.
These are similar to fats and oils, except that one of the fatty acid chains in replaced by a phosphate group that is attached to an alcohol molecule.
These are lipids that are composed of four carbon rings.
These are the third major group of macromolecules; they makeup the bodies of organisms.
These are proteins that are capable of speeding up certain chemical reactions.
These are short proteins that are used as chemical messengers throughout your brain and body.
This is a chain of amino acids that are linked together by peptide bonds.
Primary Structures
The sequence of amino acids that make up a particular polypeptide chain is termed as the primary structure of a protein.
Secondary Structure
This is the foiled or folded shape that the polypeptide chain fold into spontaneously.
Tertiary Structure
This is when the proteins result in more complex shapes than the secondary structure.
Quaternary Structure
This is the way that the subunits that are needed to make a whole protein are assembled.
Nucleic Acids
These are the macromolecules that organisms store information about the structure of their proteins.
These are the subunits that make up a chain of nucleic acid.

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