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First Psych test


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environmental poisons ingested by the mother which places the developing child at risk (e.g., nicotine, alcohol, cocaine)
a decrease in responding with repeated stimulation, enables researches to assess what infants see and remember.
the biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior, sets the basic course of development
all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating
maps" or "plans" that our mind develops to help us make sense of the world
bringing new information into our schemas Accommodate- changing our schemas in order to fit new information
Sensorimotor stage
the basic level of thinking for infants (e.g., being aware of surroundings through the senses )
Object permanence
- by 8 mos. old, the awareness that things exist even when out of sight (e.g., mother leaves room but child is still aware of her existence)
Preoperational stage
(2-7 years old) Child learns to use language but does not yet comprehend the mental operations of concrete logic.
the inability to take another person's point of view Occurs in the preoperational stage of cognitive development
Concrete operational stage
(7-11 years old) Child gains the mental operations that enable them to think logically about concrete events
Properties such as mass, volume, and number remain the same despite changes in the forms of objects Occurs in the concrete operational stage
Formal operational thinking
thinking logically about abstract concepts, occurs by age 12
Theory of Mind
- People's ideas about their own and other's mental states-about their feelings, perceptions, and thoughts and the behaviors these might predict Rather than thinking about people as living wind-up dolls, children begin to realize that people have minds
Stranger Anxiety
Occurs by 8 months when infants prefer familiar voices and faces and demonstrate anxiety in the company of others
Critical period-
occurs in non-human animals. The time period during which an animal must form IMPRINTING of the mother in order for survival (e.g., Babe and the sheepdogs)
Basic trust
according to Erik Erikson, humans who display secure attachment generally become competent preschoolers.
Baumrind’s Theory of Permissive parneting style
makes few demands for household responsibilities. She is a resource for the child when he wishes, not an active agent. Child regulates own behavior (e.g., the “absent” parents) makes few demands for household responsibilities. She is a resource for the child when he wishes, not an active agent. Child regulates own behavior (e.g., the “absent” parents) Child qualities: poor emotion regulation, rebellious and defiant when desires are challenged, antisocial behaviors
aumrind’s Theory of Parenting Styles:Authoritarian
absolute standards, theologically motivated by a higher authority. No verbal give and take. ‘My way or the highway’ (e.g., military parents, fundamental religious parents) Child qualities: anxious, withdrawn, unhappy disposition, poor reactions to frustrations, not likely to engage in antisocial activities
Baumrind’s Theory of Parenting Styles: Authoritative
Direct child’s issues but in a rational issue-oriented way. Encourages verbal give and take, gives reasoning behind policies. Values autonomous self-will and affirms child’s qualities. Child qualities: lively and happy disposition, self-confident, well-developed emotional regulation, developed social skills
Cross-sectional studies
studying individuals of different ages at the same time
Longitudinal studies
studying the same individuals across a long period of time
Fluid intelligence
reasoning speedily and abstractly (e.g., solving a puzzle, riddle, general problem solving) tends to decline with age
Crystallized intelligence
accumulated knowledge and verbal skills (e.g., fund of knowledge, facts, vocabulary) tends to increase with age

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