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M200 Exam 1


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study of very small (1 microm) organisms, study of above org that have macroscopic forms (ex. algae, fungi, and worms)
eat everything: people, garden, house, food, cars
Benefits of microbes (3 things)
1. Recycle environment (dead bodies)
2. bioremediation
3. food, chem, and pharm industries
examples of food, chem, and pharm uses of microbes
yogurt, swiss cheese, soy sauce, butter, antibiotics, steroids, chemicals
Aristotle told Alexander to:
boil water and bury fecal material to avoid disease caused by contagion
In the middle ages, people thought disease was caused by:
influences of stars (ex. influenza)
Renaissance: Idea of:
spontaneous generation
Who did this: meat in petri dishes, exposed some air, maggots appeared only in or on exposed plates
Redi (Italian Physician)
Who did this: Ground lenses and mounted them, to make the first microscope and published sketches "animalcules"
Van Louwenhoek
this disease was believed to be caused by a "contagion", inoculated children to cause a mild form
small pox
the practice of inoculation
variolation (variola means pox)
Who did this: noticed milk maids had pox only on their hands, and decided it was because they were exposed to cowpox
practice of inoculating children with cowpox
vaccination (vacca means cow)
Who did this: Sterilized meat broth and kept it open to air in a special flask ("retort") and found no decay, brought broth in contact with air and found decay. Destroyed the idea of spontaneous generation
this disease has killed people up until 1977 and killes 70-80% of those affected. Major form killed 50% and minor form killed 1%
small pox
Who did this: saw someone run over by carriage, he had a compound fracture, used phenol to kill the bacteria and reset the fracture and the boy lived, started era of antisepsis
you have a very serious disease: BP goes down, HP goes up, fever, pale
Who did this: instituted all medical students had to scrub their hands in chlorine water and it reduced hospital mortality rate, was father or epidemeology
have DNA in a nucleoid (not a nucleus), 70S ribosomes, no membrane-bound organelles
have cell wall (murein), membrane (ester links), nucleoid, cytoplasm, flagella (hollow), inclusion bodies (storage granules), capsule, endospores
ex of bacteria (2 things)
e coli and salmonella
gram positive stains:
purple and blue
gram neg stains:
pink or red
some live in hot springs and deep-sea vents, have cell wall (pseudomurein = altered peptidoglycan), membrane (ether links = stronger than ester links and can withstand high temps), nucleoid, cytoplasm
have DNA in a true nucleus, 80S ribosomes, membrane-bound organelles, flagella (solid core), membrane has ester bonds
photosynthetic org than contain chloroplasts and central vacuole, can be single celled or lagre, cell wall (cellulose)
Ex of algae (2 things)
kelp or seaweed
has complex internal structure, some can move using flagella or pseudopod, doesn't have true cell walls
ex of protozoa (2 things)
euglena and amoeba
have thin, threadlike cells called hyphae, cell wall (chitin)
ex of fungi (3 things)
mold, yeast, mushrooms
hyphae weaved together are called :
group of elongated soft bodied invertebrate animals
ex of worms (4 things)
earthworms, tapeworms, flukes, roundworms
genetic materia + protein + membrane (from host), obligate intracellular parasites
only protein, have no genetic material
ex of prion (1 thing)
mad cow disease
mother cell produces a spore to preserce the species, walls off a certain part of cell and put hydrophic and takes out water, spors are dehydrated and not susceptable to wet heat. their enzymes are protected
sheep run against something and rub into flesh and get:
how scrapie causes mad cow disease:
scrapie infested sheep die and then are ground up and fed to cows
two forms of bateria
eubacteria and archaea
cell wall is made of
pilus is made of
storage granule, inclusion bodies
glycogen gradule
holds DNA but does not include true chromosomes, has no membrane in prokaryotes, long strand that attaches at the end to make a circle
cytoplasm contains: (5 things)
enzymes (protein), ribosomes (protein, rRNA), mRNA, tRNA, and small molecules
role of ribosomes
makes protein
flagellum is made of:
outer cell membrane is made of: (3 things)
lipid, protein, carbohydrate
inner membrane is made of: (2 things)
lipid and protein
causes cell to bind to other cells so the bacteria can hold onto your cells
LPS stands for:
which holds stains better: gram + or gram -
gram +
ties peptidoglycan layers together
teichoic acid
peptidoglycan only occurs in
70S vs 80S
70S: susceptable to antibiotics, 80S: not susceptable to antibiotics, has higher velocity in cetrifuge
only attach bacterial ribosomes and not our own
helps eat chem and plastics and helps clean up oil spills
can be used to tell what genus or family or species something belongs to
Microscope: simples, compouns, standard lab scope
bright field
Microscrope: two opaque rings (interference), only allows light to go through in specific patterns
phase contrast (no stain)
Microscrope: special condenser focuses light on objective rim (everything but specimin is black)
dark field (no stain)
Microscope: UV light source, specimin looks neon
Microscope: tramsmission and scanning, short wavelength = high resolution
1 stain, quick
>1 stain, ex: spore stain, flagella stain, neg stain
sperates species or groups (stain)
differential complex
heavy metal stains, electrons go through everything but heavy metals
electron microscope stains
other microscope stains (2 things)
capsule and flagella
monotrichous (vibrio), amphitrichous, lophotrichous, peritrichous (e coli), atrichous (shigella)
flagella stains
morphology: staphyloccoci and streptococci
cocci (spheres)
Morphology: genus bacillus or bacillus
bacilli (rods)
Morphology: ex vibrio
spirilla/vibrioids (curved rods)
Morphology: ex diphtheria
Morphology: ex treponema
spirochetes (corkscrew shaped)
gain dry weight is called:
growths gives rise to:
amino acids, sugars, fatty acids, and nucleotides
metabolic building blocks
breakdown of chemicals to use as energy
org takes building blocks and builds structures tha they need
phases of growth (4 things)
lag (adjustment phase), exponential (induced genes), stationary, death
mask specially made to form to your face
N95 mask
how you do a gram stain (3 steps)
1. put culture on slide with water and let air dry
2. put specimen with heat (fix point: hot but not burning, culture is almost melting)
3. add dyes
steps in adding dyes (4 steps)
1. primary stain (crystal violet)-1 min then wash off with water
2. fix it (make it color-fast - mordent=iodine)
3. decolorize stain with alcohol and acetone ("destain") then wash it off (shows gram +)
4. counter stain to see gram - org as well (use saffron for this step)
capsule stain uses:
india ink for "neg stain"
cell with no flagella is called:
cell with one flagella on each side is called:
cell with lots of flagella stinking out one spot is called:
cell with flagella sticking out all over is called:
process of DNA -> mRNA is called:
process of mRNA -> protein called:
process of protein to structural proteins uses this as the facilitator
digests polymers to bring into the cell
three things enzymes make from structural proteins:
1. nucleic acids
2. polysaccharides
3. act on proteins
(all basic units)
1st step is sterilize medium. kitchen culture, home canning (pressure cooker at 121 degrees C), lab cultures (autoclave and glassware), and broth & agar cultures
how we culture microbes
pure culture used to test purity of water samples, problem: get different samples every time because micro org. move around
pure culture from liquid
pure culture-"streak for isolation, dilution is basis behind isolation, result=single isolated colonies that we know are pure
pure culture on agar (best)
steps to pure culture (4 things)
1. sterilization
2. inoculation
3. incubation
4. reading results
couting methonds (2 things)
viable (plate count) and non-viable (coulter counter)
everything is known inside of the medium, clinical org don't grow on this medium
medium used when unknown chem. analysis
regular or simple, enriched, differential, selective, combined differential/selective, enrichment
types of complex medium
complex medium: nutrient agar or TSA for most pathogenic bacteria, used for growing clinical org
regular or simple
complex medium: nutrient agar + V&X factors for haemophilus influenzae
complex medium: blood agar used to see hemolysis, beta hemolysis in staphylococcus aureus (clear), alpha hemolysis in streptococcus pneumoniae(green), can see different colonies bc of medium
complex medium: azide agar from gram +
complex medium: MacConkey's agar for G -, bile and crystal violet kills G +, lactose fermented to organic acids and neutral red-red, if it isn't fermenting sugar, it appears clear
combined differential/selective
complex medium: ex is selenite broth for salmonella, not an enriched medium
growth requirements (3 things)
1. oxygen
2. temperature
3. pH
aerobe, anaerobe, facultative anaerobe, microaerophile
oxygen requirements
mesophile, psychrophile, thermophile
acidophile, neutrophile, alkalinophile
uses oxygen and needs it to grow at the top of the tube
hate and die in the presence of oxygen, grow at bottom of the tube, fermentation
can grow in presence or absense of oxygen
facultative anaerobe
only likes a little bit of oxygen
can grow up to 45C, opt is a little above 30C
grow in refrigerator, most non-pathogenic, -5 - 20C
live in acid conditions
org that live in neutrile conditions
live in alkaline conditions
specific microbe that can grow in refrigerator food and are pathogenic to humans and their blood
prevents staining, has to be heated first, also limits growth, that's why it has such a long DT
mycolic acid
10 DT =
2 ^10
No(2^n), o=number of org you start out with, n=times of doubling org
caused by Fransicella, called "Rabbit Fever", and doesn't heal, also called Tulermia
external ulcer
types of control on humans or other environments, killing them (microcidal), retarding them (microbiostatic), -cidal or
-static actions are often dose dependent, sterilants disinfectants, antiseptics, antimicrobials
types and properties of control agents
Practical control methods (3)
1. heat
2. high and low energy radiation
3. chemicals
most important form of sterilization, autoclaving (high steam pressure, need at least 121C), tyndallization, pasteruization, adv (cheap, good penetration, safe), dis adv (damage to some materials)
heat (thermal) control method
gamma radiation (high), goes through everything but heavey metal, adv (non-damaging, excellent penetration), dis adv (expensize, safety issues and red tape), UV radiation (really good for surfaces and can purify the air)
high and low radiation control method
bactericidal chems
chemical control method
phenolics, alcohols, halides & peroxides, heavy metals, surfactants, alkylating agents
6 classes of chem used in control
ex: triclosan (used in deo)and phenylphenol (used in lysol)
ex: ETOH and iPROH (70% better than 100% because 100% less antimicrobial)
ex: chlorine (I2 is common halideand H2O2 (most common peroxide), betadine is complex so not as toxic to the skin
halides & peroxides
anionic (detergents), cationic (strong disinfectants, anionic + cationic=0 kill
ex formaldehyde
alkylating agents
refrigerator, drying, salting
preservation methods
potent chemotherapeutics used internally to treat (cure) infectious diseases, kills or inhibits microorganisms, cidal or static
antimicrobials biosynthesized by one microbe used to kill or inhibit other competing microbes
selective toxicity, salvarsan against syphilis(mercurial drug)
ehrlich coined chemotherapy, found out what would kill the org and what would kill the host
penicillium mold grew on staph plates and the staph colonies near the mold were inhibited
how flemming found penicilin
1st general antimicrobial on world market, chemically synthesized antimicrobial
multiple drug therapy methods (4)
1. high levels
2. synergism
3. only necessary cases
4. new variations (2nd and 3rd generations)
IV, IM (intramuscular), oral, SC (subcutanious), subepi, IT (intrathecal, btw vertabrae), IP (intrapritoneal)
routes of entry
chemically modified antibiotics to counter resistance
therapeutic window and common adverse reactions
drug toxicity
happened in ONE org in a population (mutation)
aquired drug resistance
phage therapy, hyper-immune therapy, anti-sense therapy
antibiotic alternatives
the close to the disc, the higher the concentration of antibiotic
disc diffusion (kirby-bauer) 6mm
given a minimum to not quite kill the microorganisms just holds them back, problem: can still mutate
sub-clinical dose
# of mutation/# of org
mutation rate
vasotracin, neomycin, and polymicin B make up:
MRSA stands for:
methicillin resistance staph aureous
was a law, couldn't use unless it was an MRSA
VRE stands for:
vancomycin resistant enterococcin
little chunks of DNA inside bacteria and DNA gets exchanged and causes resistance
found in neosporing, damages membranes to kill organisms, low concentration: static, high concentration: cidal
plymixin B
penicillins, cephalosporins, vancomycin, and bacitracin does this:
explodes cell walls
unwind and reorganizes DNA for cell division
DNA gyrase
use bacterial viruses to kill bacteria, "lytic/varialent phage" viruses are bacterial viruses that kill bacteria, attach bacteria and multiply inside and break out of and kill bacteria and it gives rise to many more viruses, they grow exponenti
Phage Therapy
tetanus antiserum (not the vaccine to take to prevent). you take this if you already have tetanus and want to get rid of it
serum therapy
hyper immune serum, taken from people who've had hepB and cured and serum is very high in antibiotics, you want Ig from serum because it contains the antibodies, taken after you've been exposed to hepB to avoid developing it
active vaccine for hepB
passive vaccine for hebB
pulled from peopel who've had the disease, only temporary, don't make your own antibodies
passive vaccine
Antibiotic alternatives (3)
1. phage therapy
2. serum therapy
3. antisense therapy
normal biota on skin (3)
staph, diphtheroids, and lactobacillus
smelly armpits and feet
acne, organism that has certain common characteristics to the pathogen that cause diphtheria
diphtheroids and proprionibacteria
make yogurt and sour cream, benign and doesn't smell
scrubbing and it alkalinizes your skin and kill off most organisms except staph (smelly, infections with staph more likely because staph will grow on soap)
ferment sugars and form acids abd irritating by-products in the sulcus and the gum starts pulling away from your tooth
capsules a-e are:
can cause secondary pneumonia because mucocilliary escalator is growing bc you don't have cilliary to keep it from going down in your lungs
s. pneumonia and influenza
if selective you get bright red org and it shows it fermenting the lactose
enterobacteria gram rods (coliforms)
gram -
enteric org, mutation against vancomycin (VRE), and gram +
kills all but clostridium difficile, bowel material is enrichment medium
clindamycin (found in colon)
found in small intestine
E coli
subgroup of antimicrobial drugs, made by one microorganism that affects other microorganisms
made in lab, not by other org
synthetic drugs
Penicillin source, action, and spectrum
penicillium, N (Flemming, produced by mold), block cell wall synthesis and repair
Cephalosporins source, action, and spectrum
cephalosporium NI (produced by molds), block cell wall synthesis and repair
chloromphenical, erythromycin, quinones, tetracyucline, vancomycin, and streptmycin source, action, and spectrum
streptomyces, chloro: B, eryth: N, quin: B, tetra: B, block cell wall synthesis and repair, inhibit DNA gyrase, affects ribosomes
bacitracin sourse and action
bacillus, block cell wall synthesis and repair
block cell wall synthesis and repair (causes walls to leak), make cell membranes leaky and if high enough drug concentration is used it is bacteriocidal, affect nucleic acid synthesis by inhibiting DNA gyrase, inhibit protein synthesis by affecting the r
targets of drugs
triple antibiotic ointment (neomycin, bacitracin, and plymycin)
sulpha trimethuloprim, multi drug therapies have a combined mutation rate lower than for one drug alone
how often a pop of org will have a mutation which will give that org resistance to a particular antibiotic
mutation rate
how resistance between cells can be passed through pili
mutations in one bacteria's plasmids
was to be used for s. aureus but instead was used for enterococcus
developed resistance for vancomycin and because VRE
obtained the resistance for vancomycin from VRE to become vancomycin intermediate resistant s. aureus
smallest amount of drug that will inhibit growth and reproduction of the bacteria
minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC)
lowest concentration for which no growth occurs (tube will be clear)
minimum bacteriocidal concentration (MBC)
s. epidermitis, coagulase meg. staph, diphtheroids, dermatophytes
org found as flora of dry skin
G- anaerobe rod causes periodontal disease
most abundant org of the female genital tract should be:
lactobacillus spp
normal biota orgs cause overgrowth infections after the use of antibiotics
clostridium difficile and candida albicans-vaginal yeasts
keeps normal biota out of the lungs
mucociliary tree
most common org to colonize in the genital tract when it is alkaline
most likely internal area for normal biota to be found
lungs bc of easy access
org most resistant to antimicrobials
this drug blocks mRNA
antisense drug
lowest drug concentration with a clear tube
how you determine MIC
org that normally live in and on healthy human beings
normal biota/normal flora
nonpathogenic, gray zone, pathogens, symbiosis
types of normal biota
opportunists: org that test us and attack when we're weak
gray zone
always causes disease
mutualism, commensalism, parasitism
where normal biota occur
on your skin, in your pores and hair follicles, armpits, skin folds
where DON'T normal biota occur
sinuses, eyes, nose, mouth, throught, duodenum, bladder, men's genital tract, and upper women's genital tract,
ciliated cells along borders of sterile and non-sterile and that's what keeps org out of sterile agrea
mucociliary tree/escalator
biota on dry skin
staph and diphtheroids
biota on wet skin
strep and lactobacillus
biota in nose
s. aureus and produces food toxins
biota in mouth
strept and bacteroides (anaerobes)
biota in pharynx
strep, neisseria, diphtheroids (strep causes rheumatic fever)
biota in small intestine
biota in large intestine
bacteroides, pseudomembranous colitis and clostridium difficile (only thing broad spectrum drugs don't kill), yest infections and candida
biota in urethra/ext. genitals
staph and diphtheroids
biota in vagina
lactobacillus, B.V., gardnerella vaginalis
recognized on pap smear as clue cells (gram - rods in upper tract that shouldn't be there)
lactobacillus (pH 4.5-5)
study of causation of disease and disease cycle
broad spectrum that causes yeast infections and diarrhea
structural and functional changes caused by disease
vessel that holds a disease (ex: bodies of water, food, soil, animals)
the org that was transmitted is specific for your cell
adhesion (done by adhesins or viral receptors)
on of the antibodies on all your mucus membranes
takes place superficially at first (oral, skin, eyes) and either goes deeper or stays superficially
as the org leaves, it has enough org to reach ID50 by the time it gets to the next host = the org's whole goal
portal of exit
in what area does etiology tell you the weak links in the armor of a disease and you can use it to stop propagation
public health
study of the spread and control of diseases within a population

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