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issue network
a policy-making alliance among loosely connected participants that coms together on a particular issue and then disbands
nongovernmental organization (NGO)
A nonprofit association or group operating outside of government that advocates and pursues policy objectives
issue advocacy
promoting a position or issue; paid for by interest groups or individuals, not candidates
Twenty Fourth
Amendment that abolished poll tax
executive order
Directive issued by a president or governor that has the force of law
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade; international trade organization ehtat encourages free trade by lowering tariffs and other trade restrictions
legislator who votes independently of constituency based on personal judgement of circumstances
tax expenditures
loss of tax revenue due to laws that provide tax incentives or benefits to individuals or businesses
Planned Parenthood v. Casey
states may regulate abortion as long as there is "no undue burden" on the mother; did not overturn Roe v. Wade but gave states mroe leeway in regulating abortion (parental consent for minors, 24 hour waiting period)
African Americans
poorer, Democratic, civil rights
rule of four
if four justices say that they are interested in a case then the case will be heard by the Supreme Court; must have four votes to be heard
implied powers
Powers inferred from the express powers that allow Congress to carry out its functions
Amendment that says people born in US are citizens of the US, citizens living in a state are citizens of that state; states cannot deny people of life, liberty, or property without due process of law, equal protection of laws
exemption from prosecution for a particular crime in return for testimony pertaining to a case
federal mandate
A requirement the federal government imposes as a condition for receiving federal funds
rule of propinquity
closer to the president, people feel they have more power; EOP more important than cabinet members
news media
media that emphasizes local, national, and world events
Speaker of the House
presiding officer of the House, appoints Rules committee, assigns bills to committees, may recommend leaders but cannot appoint
line item veto
president crosses out parts of budget bills that he doesn't like; ruled unconstitutional by Clinton v. NY
Constitutional arrangement in which power is distributed between a central government and subdivisional governments, called states in the United States. The national and the subdivisional governments both exercise direct authority over individuals.
limited forums
available for assembly and speech for limited purposes, times, and speakers, provided the distinctions between the people allowed access and thsoe excluded are not biased; eg: other public property such as city hall, schools
Schenck case
clear and present danger test; shouting "fire" in a crowded theater; limits on speech especially in wartime
retrospective issue voting
Holding incumbents, usually the president's party, responsible for their records on issues, such as the economy or foreign policy.
Bush v. Gore
this case ruled in favor of Bush by saying that recounting the votes in certain counties of Florida was unconstitutional because of equal protection of the law; Gore's wish to make the process as simple and painless as possible backfired
those who file lawsuits (defended by prosecutors) in a civil suit
majority opinion
an explanation of a decision made by an appellate court; includes the facts issues and reasoning of the decision; it may ask Congress to act on something; needs at least 5 judges to sign
media consolidation
companies merge to create large conglomerates of many newspapers and broadcasting stations; Rupert Murdoch, Fox News, 20th Century Fox, TV Guide
judicial restraint
strict interpretation of the Constitution giving power to state legislatures (less likely to use a writ of certiorari); believe in the 10th amendment; don't want to hear cases unless there is a Cosntitutional issue; interpret based on the framer's intent
Council of Economic Advisers
advises the President on the state of the economy
open primary
Primary election in which any voter, regardless of party, may vote.
Shay's Rebellion
Rebellion led by Daniel Shays of farmers in western Massachusetts in 1786-1787, protesting mortgage foreclosures. It highlighted the need for a strong national government just as the call for the Constitutional Convention went out.
The idea that the rights of the nation are supreme over the rights of the individuals who make up the nation
due process
established rules and regulations that restrain those in government who exercise power
Rehnquist Court
the conservative justice who was on the Burger Court that became chief justice; as chief justice he led a conservative revolution that left power up to the states over Congress; ruled on Bush v. Gore
criminal law
a law that defines crimes against the public order; comes from criminal laws passed by federal and state governments
justiciable dispute
a dispute growing out of an actual case or controversy that is capable of settlement by legal methods
issue advocacy
Unlimited and undisclosed spending by an individual or group on communications that do not use words like "vote for" or "vote against," although much of this activity is actually about electing or defeating candidates.
internal political efficacy
the belief that an understanding of government enables one to participate
Congressional power over Bureaucracy
Oversight, appropriations, investigations, sunset laws
wedge issues
Issues that motivate particular segments of the electorate to vote and on which the opposing candidate or party has a less popular position.
states' rights
Powers expressly or implicitly reserved to the states.
inner cabinet
economy, crime, foreign and domestic policy
types of standing committees
authorizing, appropriations, rules and administrations, revenue and budget
staggered terms
not all offices are up for election at once; 1/3 of senate are up for election every two years
Twenty Seventh
Amendment that says congressional salaries cannot be raised until an election of representatives has intervened
Texas v. Johnson
burning a flag is a form of symbolic speech
Hamdi v. Rumsfeld
enemy combatants in the US still have due process rights; 5th amendment
marble cake federalism
all levels of government are involved in a variety of issues and programs rather than with fixed divisions between levels of government
reasons bureaucracies are difficult to control
dense layers of management, overlap across departments and agencies, red tape and paper pushing
responsible party system
European model of party government: officeholders are expected to act according to party wishes and to vote along party lines.
527 organization
A political group organized under section 527 of the IRS Code that may accept and spend unlimited amounts of money on election activities so long as they are not spent on broadcast ads run in the last 30 days before a primary or 60 days before a general election in which a clearly identified candidate is referred to and a relevant electorate is targeted.
Dickerson v. US (2000)
court upheld the miranda decision; struck down a congressional act allowing voluntary confessions to be accepted before their miranda rights had been read
Senate majority leader
true leader in senate, recognized first for debates, true leader of majority party
Griswold v. Connecticut
married couple wanted to get contraceptives; struck down a Connecticut law prohibiting the sale of contraceptives; established the right of privacy through the 4th and 9th amendment
standing committee
permanen committee established in a legislature; focuses on a specific policy area
Federal Communications Commission (FCC)
an independent regulatory commission that licenses and regulates broadcasting stations; it may regulate content
Bakke case
student wanted to be admitted into Davis Medical Program; strict quotas were unconstitutional but race is allowed as a factor in admission decisions as long as it is not the only one; affirmative action is constitutional;
who is biased in media
journalists- more liberal; editors/owners- conservative
political socialization
The process -- most notably in families and schools -- by which we develop our political attributes, values, and beliefs.
fair housing act of 1968
forbids discrimination in housing and loans; helped prevent segregation
Miranda v. Arizona
est. warnings of counsel and silence for the accused; must be given before questioning; warren court's judicial activism for criminals
constitutional democracy
A government that enforces recognized limits on those who govern and allows the voice of the people to be heard through free, fair, and relatively frequent elections.
divided government
Governance divided between the parties, especially when one holds the presidency and the other controls one or both houses of Congress
civil law
a law that governs the relationships between individuals and defines their legal rights; cases that deal with contract issues and cases that define the legal rights of individuals
regulatory takings
when government regulation of a property becomes so extensive that, although the original land holder remains the title owner of the property, the government is required to give just compensation
Virginia Plan
Initial proposal at the Constitutional Convention made by the Virginia delegation for a strong central government with a bicameral legislature dominated by the big states.
open-ended questions
permit respondents to answer in their own words rather than in set categories.
legal privileges
granted by the government, may be restricted or subject to conditions
safe seats
an elected office that is predictably won by one party or another; leads to less competition
devolution revolution
The effort to slow the growth of the federal government by returning many functions to the states.
dissenting opinion
an opinion disagreeing with the majority decision in a Supreme Court ruling
discretionary spending
money spent on programs which the spending rate can be changed
political ideology
a consistent (sort of) pattern of beliefs about political values and the role of government
minor party
A small political party that rises and falls with a charismatic candidate or, if composed of ideologies on the right or left, usually persists over time; also called a third party.
Brown v. Board (1955)
ordered schools to desegregate with "all due and deliberate speed"
written defamation or false statements of another person
national debt
the total amount of money borrowed to finance the annual deficits
Lemon case
established a three part test to determine if establishment clause is violated; nonsecular purpose, advances or inhibits religion. excessive entanglement with religion
Green party
A minor party dedicated to the environment, social justice, nonviolence, and a foreign policy of nonintervention. Ralph Nader ran as its nominee in 2000.
US v. Lopez
court ruled that gun-free school zone act exceeded Congress' authority to regulate interstate commerce; Congress must defer to states; Rehnquist judicial restraint, judicial supremacy
search warrant
writ authorized by a magistrate that authorities the police to search a particular place or person, specifying the place to be searched and the objects to be seized; police must have probable cause to justify it
civil disobedience
deliberate refusal to obey a law or comply with the orders of public officials as a means of expressing opposition
Baron de Montesquieu
man who influenced the Founders to include a set of checks and balances in the Constitution
generational effects
when a particular generation has had certain experiences, their experiences make them politically extinct
ex. of environmental policy
superfund, Clean Air Act, Clean Water Act,
Federal Reserve Board
establishes banking practices and regulates currency in circulation as well as the amount of credit available
House Rules Committee
most important House Committee, decides calendar of bill hearings, grants rules to bills
Help America Vote Act (HAVA)
provides $3.9 billion in federal funds to modernize American voting procedures and mandates that states maintain accurate statewide voter registration lists; also permits voters to cast provisional ballots if there is uncertainty about their registration.
types of interest groups
economic, single issue, public interest, foreign policy, public sector,
off-year elections
Elections held in odd-numbered calendar years.
pocket veto
if the president does not sign a bill within 10 days of congress adjourning then the bill is killed and is not sent back to congress
bully pulpit
president able to use media and influence to get programs passed
police powers
inherent powers of state governments to pass laws protecting public health, safety, and welfare of residents
voter registration
System designed to reduce voter fraud by limiting voting to those who have established eligibility to vote by submitting the proper documents
writ of habeas corpus
"produce the body," must produce all prisoners in court and explain why they are being held; Hamdan v. Rumsfield
plea bargain
agreement between a prosecutor and a defendant that the defendant will plead guilty to a lesser offense to avoid having to stand trial for a more serious offense
representative democracy (republic)
Government in which the people elect those who govern and pass laws
bill of attainder
legislative acts inflicting punishment to individuals or a group of individuals without a trial
Federalist No. 51
written by James Madison; separation of powers; "you must first enable the government to control the governed; and in the next place oblige it to control itself.
Supplemental Security Income; monthly payments to disabled people over 65 who can prove their income
electoral college
the indirect way of selecting a president set up by the framers
monetary policy
manages the economy by controlling the money supply (federal board of reserves)
proportional representation
political parties secure legislative seats and power in proportion to the number of votes received in the election
Burger Court
a conservative jurist appointed by Nixon that nonetheless continued the judicial activism of the Warren Court as seen by Roe v. Wade; this was due to the other members of the court rather than his own liberal beliefs
economic sanctions
denial of import or export of goods with a target country; only works if multilateral
public defender system
arrangement whereby public officials are hired to provide legal assistance to people accused of crimes who are unable to hire their own attorneys; Gideon v. Wainwright
Procedure for submitting to popular vote measures passed by the legislature or proposed amendments to a state constitution
gag orders
court orders preventing lawyers and jurors from commenting on ongoing trials
de jure segregation
segregation imposed by law; integration must be supported by federal government
appellate jurisdiction
the authority of a court to review decisions made by lower courts
Slaughter House Cases
distinguished between the privileges of US citizens and those of state citizens; the only privileges of national citizenship are those owed to the existence of the Federal Government, its National Character, its Constitution, or its laws; eg: reight to use navigable water of the US, protection on the high seas, assemple peacefully, petition for redress of grievances, right to vote if qualified to do so under state laws, travel through out US
Aid to Families with Dependent Children; states matched federal funds, created a means testl congress set time limits on public assistance
writ of mandamus
Court order directing an official to perform an official duty
preferred position doctrine
freedom of expression should rarely if ever be limited; the freedom of speech is so essential to democracy that governments should only punish people for what they do not what they say
Head Start
preschool programs for poor students
soft money
Unlimited amounts of money that political parties previously could raise for party-building purposes. Now largely illegal except for limited contributions to state and local parties for voter registration and get-out-the-vote efforts
interest group pluralism
Competition among open, responsive, and diverse groups help preserve democratic values and limits the concentration of power in any single group.
Muller v. Oregon
stated that there were inherent differences between men and women and that therefore women should not be allowed to work in certain jobs or conditions
independent regulatory commissions
govt. entities that are independent of the president; regulate the economy; ex: SEC, FBR, FCC
petit jury
jury of 6-12 people that determines or innocence in a civil or criminal action
procedure for terminating debate (stops a filibuster)
Reform party
A minor party founded by Ross Perot in 1995. It focuses on national government reform, fiscal responsibility, and political accountability. It has recently struggled with internal strife and criticism that it lacks an identity.
Mapp v. Ohio
established the exclusionary rule; evidence illegally obtained cannot be used in court; Warren Court's judicial activism
Connecticut Compromise
Compromise agreement by states at the Constitutional Convention for a bicameral legislature with a lower house in which representation would be based on population and an upper house in which each state would have two senators
criteria for laws
general, undiscriminatory; prospectivity for present and future; publicly made known; from legitimate authority; due process
endorsement test
forbids governmental practices that a reasonable observer would view as endorsing religion; championed by Sandra Day O'Connor
Members of the current supreme court
activists- steven breyer, ruth bader ginsburg, john paul stevens, david souter; restrainers- clarence thomas, samuel alito, john roberts, antonin scalia; swing vote- anthony kennedy
due process clause
5th amendment, no person shall "be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law;" it protects people from the national government
political opinions that people may hold but have not yet fully expressed.
suspect classifications
a class of people deliberately subjected to such unequal treatment in the past of that society has made so politically powerless as to require extraordinary judicial protection (i.e. blacks)
commerce clause
gives congress the power to prevent corporations from discriminating against minorities; allowed Title II and VII in the Civil Rights Act of 1964
nongermane amendments
riders, earmarks, unrelated amendments to bills; Christmas tree legislation
A grouping of human beings with distinctive characteristics determined by genetic influence.
public forums
public places historically associated with the free exercise of expressive activities; streets, side walks, parks; time, place, and manner must be reasonable, cannot be limited because of what is being said
independent expenditure
The Supreme Court has ruled that individuals, groups, and parties can spend unlimited amounts in campaigns for or against candidates as long as they operate independently from the candidates. When an individual, group, or party does so, they are making this.
Proportion of the population that holds a particular opinion.
president pro tempore
ceremonial head, fills in for VP when gone
Rodriguez Case
(1973) stated that education was not a fundamental right; a school-financing system based on local property taxes did not violate the 14th amendment because there was de facto segregation not de jure segregation
focus groups
small samples of people who are asked about candidates and issues in a discussion setting
mandatory spending
money that must be spent but Congress has no control over the spending rate; interest on national debt, social security,
Gregg v. Georgia
made capital punishment constitutional; overturned Furman v. Georgia (1972) which stated that capital punishment was unconstitutional
right of expatriation
the right of people to renounce their citizenship
Office of Personnel Management
agency that administers civil service laws, rules, and regulations; incl. the Merits Systems Protection Board
Amendment that started prohibition
soft money
Money raised in unlimited amounts by political parties for party-building purposes. Now largely illegal except for limited contributions to state or local parties for voter registration and get-out-the-vote efforts.
contract clause
clause in constitution intended to prevent state governments from altering contracts made between individuals; later used to prevent states from taking away property rights; now no longer significantly restrains state government in order to protect states' police powers
White House Office of Global Communications
political office; makes US look good in foreign countries; propaganda
fixed terms
the length of a term in office is specified, not indefinite; House=2; Senate=6, President=4
prior restraint
censorship imposed on a speech before it published in a newspaper; usually unconstitutional
restrictive covenants
provision in a property deed preventing sale to a person of a particular race or religion; loan discrimination; ruled unconstitutional
economic policies
laissez-faire, Keynesian, trickle-down, supply side, monetarism
Federal Register
the official journal of the US bureaucracy that informs the public of proposed rules, changes to rules, and new rules
The proportion of the voting-age public that votes, sometimes defined as the number of registered voters that vote.
hard money
Political contributions given to a party, candidate, or interest group that are limited in amount and fully disclosed. Raising such limited funds is harder than raising unlimited funds, hence the term's name.
issue activists
wish to push the parties in a particular direction on a single issue or a narrow range of issues.
life-cycle effects
as people age they vote more conservative
interest group
A collection of people who share a common interest or attitude and seek to influence for specific ends. They usually work within the framework of government and try to achieve their goals through tactics such as lobbying
economic system characterized by private property, competitive markets, economic incentives, and limited government regulation; free market
political know-nothings
Individuals that not only avoid political activity but also have little interest in government and limited knowledge about it.
divided government
Governance divided between the parties, as when one holds the presidency and the other controls one or both houses of Congress.
sunset law
law passed for a short amount of time to decide whether a bureaucracy should remain; otherwise money fades into sunset
exceptions to warrantless searches
plain-view exception, exigent circumstances (evidence may be destroyed), automobile exception, foreign intelligence and national security
three-fifths compromise
Compromise between northern and southern states at the Constitutional Convention that three-fifths of the slave population would be counted for determining direct taxation and representation in the House of Representatives.
candidate-based system
politicians are nominated largely on the basis of their qualifications and personal appeal, not party loyalty
Senate- assigning members to committees
Dem- Steering Committee; Reps- Committee on Committees
US v. Leon
weakened Mapp v. Ohio; allowed a "good faith" exception to the exclusionary rule as long as the core values of Mapp v. Ohio were not violated
nonpublic forums
open to the public but are not public forums; must use facilities within a normal bound of conduct, may be excluded if assembly uses building for purposes which it was not intended; no right to interfere with programs or try to take over a building; eg: libraries, courthouses, prisons, schools, swimming pools, government offices
Zelman case
stated that vouchers were constitutional; did not break the establishment clause
commerce clause
The clause in the Constitution (Article I, Section 8, Clause 1) that gives Congress the power to regulate all business activities that cross state lines or affect more than one state or other nations.
Candidate or party with the most votes cast in an election, not necessarily more than half.
revolving door
Employment cycle in which individuals who work for government agencies that regulate interests eventually end up working for interest groups or businesses with the same policy concern.
political action committee (PAC)
the political arm of an interest group that is legally entitled to raise funds on a voluntary basis from members, stockholders, or employees to contribute funds to candidates or political parties.
external political efficacy
the belief that one is effective when participating in politics; i.e. that the government will respond to one's demands
manifest opinion
A widely shared and consciously held view, like support for homeland security
executive privilege
The power to keep executive communications confidential, especially if they relate to national security
permissive federalism
implies that the states' share of power rests upon the permission and permissiveness of the national government
important senate committees
appropriations, armed services, finance, foreign relations
political predispositions
women vote more, more democratic; old people vote more, conservative, more educated, wealthier vote more
central clearance
reviews of all executive branch testimony, reports, and draft legislation by the OMB to ensure that each communication to Congress is in accordance with the president's program
how president influences Congress
mandate of the people, state of the Union, threat of a veto
voter suppression
negative advertising discourages some voters who might support a candidate
affirmative action
programs designed to provide special help to people who have been disadvantaged because they belong to a certain group
our federalism
presumes that the power of the federal government is limited in favor of the broad powers reserved to the states
belief that government can and should achieve justice and equality of opportunity; regulated economy, help society
entitlement programs
programs that provide benefits to eligible citizens
beauty contest
a popularity vote during the primary; candidates are chosen but delegates are not
standing to sue
plaintiffs myst have sustained or be in immediate danger of sustaining a direct and personal injury (violation of a constitution or other legal right)
Grutter v. Bollinger
affirmative action case (lost) ; race could be used as a factor in admissions as long as there was no point system and race was not a major factor; upheld Bakke case
in a criminal action, the person or party accused of an offense
heads of their departments: loyal to departments over President
Executive Office of the President
informal advisers: loyal solely to the President; incl. Council of Economic Advisers, Office of Management and Budget, White House Office, and Office of Administration, Office of Faith Based Initiatives
Amendment that says no excessive bail, no cruel or unusual punishment
measures the extent to which people believe issues are relevant to them.
public opinion
The distribution of individual preferences for or evaluations of a given issue, candidate, or institution within a specific population.
Duties of Federal Judiciary
US is a party, two or more states, state and citizens of a nother state, citizens of two or more states, citizens of the same state involving national issues
Roe v. Wade
established national abortion guidelines based on trimesters; 1st no state interference, 2nd state may regulate to protect health of mother; 3rd state may regulate to protect health of unborn child
Campaigners learn which issues matter to potential voters and which candidates these voters prefer by conducting interviews on the telephone or in person.
A term the founders used to refer to political parties and special interests or interest groups.
Asian Americans
japanese= democrat; others= republican; higher education and income;
uncontrollable spending
portion of federal budget that is spent on programs that Congress and president are unwilling to cut; ex: Social Security
voting to help a colleagues bill in exchange for a vote on another bill; reciprocity;
collective action
How groups form and organize to pursue their goals or objectives, including how to get individuals and groups to participate and cooperate. The term has many applications in the various social sciences such as political science, sociology, and economics.
Amendment that started women's suffrage
popular consent (sovereignty)
The idea that a just government must derive its powers from the consent of the people it governs
new judicial federalism
the federal government should set minimum not maximum standards on the rights protected for each citizen; advocated by judicial restrainers
Majority/Minority leader
floor leaders and legislative strategists
A theory of government that holds that open, multiple, and competing groups can check the asserted power by any one group.
checks and balances
Constitutional grant of powers that enables each of the three branches of government to check some acts of the others and therefore ensure that no branch can dominate
grand jury
a group of jurors that vote on whether there is enough evidence to warrant a trial showing that a crime was indeed committed; need a 12 to 23 vote to go to trial
A large body of people interested in a common issue, idea, or concern that is of continuing interest and who are willing to take action. They seek to change attitudes or institutions, not just policies.
Miranda v. Arizona
est. miranda warnings of counsel and silence for the accused; must be given before questioning; warren court's judicial activism for criminals
candidate activists
followers of a particular candidate who see the party as the means to elect their candidate
Amendment that allows for a militia and the right to bear arms
sunshine laws
required government agencies to open their meetings to the public and the press
Supporters of ratification of the Constitution and of a strong central government
winner take all
a system in which the candidate with the most district votes in a state gets all of the delegate votes from that state
Public Interest Research Groups (PIRGs)
groups that independently investigate and report on government and corporate action relating to consumer interests
open shop
A company with a labor agreement under which union membership cannot be required as a condition of employment.
Miranda warning
Miranda v. Arizona; making sure that suspected criminals are brought before a magistrate and informed of their right to remain silent, right to an attorney
interested money
financial contributions by individuals or groups in the hope of influencing the outcome of an election and subsequently influencing policy
Skokie case
supreme court allowed the Nazi party to march through the predominantly Jewish section of a city in Illinois; had been previously prevented by the city; time, place, and manner regulations
Dickerson v. US
2000; court upheld the miranda decision; struck down a congressional act allowing voluntary confessions to be accepted before their miranda rights had been read; Rehnquist judicial restraint
bad tendency test
forbid speech that corrupts society or that encourages crime; test abandoned because it was too broad
Mapp v. Ohio
established the exclusionary rule; evidence illegally obtained cannot be used in court; Warren Court's judicial activism
Furman v. Georgia (1972)
stated that capital punishment was unconstitutional
direct democracy
Government in which citizens vote on laws and select officials directly
Warren Court
the chief justice that overturned Plessy v. Ferguson in Brown v. Board of Education (1954); he was the first justice to help the civil rights movement, judicial activism
closed shop
A company with a labor agreement under which union membership can be a condition of employment.
fundamental rights
rights that are implicitly or explicitly guaranteed by the constitution; laws that interfere with constitutional rights are subject to strict scrutiny
class-action suit
when multiple plaintiffs band together and say that something is affecting large numbers of americans
Gratz v. Bollinger
affirmative action case; a point system for admission in which points were given for race was ruled unconstitutional; too much like a quota system; upheld Bakke case
take care clause
laws must be faithfully executed even if president disagrees--> president claiming inherent powers to faithfully protect the nation
Federalist No. 78
written by Alexander Hamilton; talks about the federal judiciary; judiciary must depend on other two branches to uphold its decisions
express powers
Powers the Constitution specifically grants to one of the branches of the national government
adversary system
a judicial system in which the court of law is a neutral arena where two parties argue their differences
rational basis test
litigants must show that the law has no rational or legitimate government goals; up to litigants attacking the law to prove; Romer v. Evans upheld that Colorado could not prohibit laws that protected homosexuals from discrimination
distributive policy
programs that give benefits to all citizens; Social Security, education, national defense
Amendment that says the enumeration of rights in the Constiturion shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people; just because it isn't in the Constitution, does not mean it isn't a right
free exercise clause
Congress shall make no law prohibiting the free exercise of religion; Santaria Case
Marbury v. Madison
ruled by John Marshall; Marbury wanted the Supreme Court to order Madison to deliver his commission; ruled section of the Judiciary Act of 1789 unconstitutional; established Judicial Review
Government by the people with free and frequent elections
exclusionary rule
evidence obtained unconstitutionally or illegally must be excluded from a criminal trial; Mapp v. Ohio
When a substantial percentage of a sample agrees on an issue.
panel surveys
Interviewing the same sample at more than one point in time.
Engaging in activities aimed at influencing public officials, especially legislators, and the policies they enact.
Engel v. Vitale
upheld establishment clause; prohibited school sponsored prayer in public schools; Warren court's judicial activism
common law
based on the legal concept of stare decisis; disputes based on custom and tradition; no federal common law, therefore appeals to the federal courts become cases of equity
A meeting of local party members to choose party officials or candidates for public office and to decide the platform
actual voting
voters elect delegates to go to the national convention to vote for a candidate
permanent Congress
the state of congress being permanent due to the lack of term-limits and the advantages of incumbency
general election
Elections in which voters elect officeholders.
writ of certiorari
a formal writ used to bring a case before the Supreme Court; if a court has made a decision conflicting with precedent, if a court has come up witht a new question, if one court of appeals has mad e decision that conflits with another, inconsistencies between courts of different states, split decision by court of appeals
New Jersey Plan
Proposal at the Constitutional Convention made by William Paterson of New Jersey for a central government with a single-house legislature in which each state would be represented equally
Maine and Nebraska plan
a winner take all system that never the less gave the candidate with the most popular votes the extra two votes in the electoral college
ex. of oversight
police patrol, fire alarm, whistle blowers
crossover voting
Voting by a member of one party for a candidate of another party
Amendment that says grand juries, no double jeopardy, no self incrimination, DUE PROCESS, eminent domain
senatorial courtesy
a presidential custom of submitting the names of prospective appointees for approval to senators from the states in which the appointees are to work (district courts)
national tide
focus on national rather than local issues; if there is a popular public view, it may skew the election in one direction
civil liberties
constitutionally protected freedoms of all persons against government restraint: the freedoms of conscience, religion, and expression
Gideon v. Wainwright
ordered states to provide lawyers for those unable to afford them; Sixth and Fourteenth Amendments; Warren Court's judicial activism
Slaughterhouse cases
the 5th and 14th amendments do not guarantee federal protection of individual rights of all citizens of the United States against discrimination by their own state governments; made a distinction between state citizenship and national citizenship
party identification
An informal and subjective affiliation with a political party that most people acquire in childhood.
party identification
An informal and subjective affiliation with a political party that most people acquire in childhood.
a meeting of local party members to discuss and choose party officials or candidates for public office; Iowa
candidate appeal
tendency in elections to focus on the personal attributes of a candidate
redrawing of congressional and other legislative district lines following the census to accommodate population shifts and keep the districts as equal in population as possible
party unity score
percentage of members of a party who vote together on roll call votes in Congress on which a majortiy of the members of one party vote against a majority of the member of another party.
legislator who follows belief of people
Opponents of ratification of the Constitution and of a strong central government generally.
closed primary
Primary election in which only persons registered in the party holding the primary may vote.
horse race
a focus on who is ahead in the primaries rather than substantive differences between candidates; more media attention to winning candidates, less time to issues
Formal accusation by the lower house of a legislature against a public official, the first step in removal from office.
list of potential cases that reach the supreme court
assigning congressional seats by Congress after each census. State legislatures reapportion state legislative districts
iron triangles
the alliance among congressional committees, interest groups, and federal departments/agencies
The candidate or party that wins more than half the votes cast in an election
Senate leadership
VP, president pro tempore, majority leader, minority leader, whips
Office of Management and Budget
creates budget requests and seeks to make the bureaucracy better
Libertarian party
A minor party that believes in extremely limited government. They call for a free market system, expanded individual liberties such as drug legalization, and a foreign policy of nonintervention, free trade, and open immigration.
Amendment that says criminal court procedures: speedy and public trial, informed of charges against
independent agencies
smaller and more focused than departments; mst report to the president
open rule
floor amendments may be made during debate
realigning election
An election during periods of expanded suffrage and change in the economy and society that proves to be a turning point, redefining the agenda of politics and the alignment of voters within parties.
partisan gerrymandering
redrawing district lines so that one party is in the majority
margin of error
Sample accurately reflects the population within this certain range.
free speech tests
bad tendency test, clear and present danger test, preferred position doctrine
Twenty Sixth
Amendment that says eighteen-year olds may vote
cubans= republican; mexicans= democratic, liberal agenda, labor, immigration
unitary system
Constitutional arrangement that concentrates power in a central government
egalitarian society
everyone should be able to earn a decent living
Barron v. Baltimore
1833; court ruled that Bill of Rights only applied to the national government, not the states; created dual citizenship
direct primary
Election in which voters choose party nominees
Amendment that says no quartering of soldiers
the annual difference between revenue received and money spent
Inner Cabinet
Treasury, State, Justice, Defense
A social division based on national origin, religion, language, and often race.
selective exposure
people screen out messages that do not conform to their own biases
quid pro quo
Something given with the expectation of receiving something in return.
de facto segregation
segregation occurring because of economic or social conditions or because of personal choice; unnecessary to force integration
defaming, criticizing, or advocating the overthrow of government; seditious libel is no longer punishable
redrawing the legislative boundaries to benefit a party, incumbent, or group
eminent domain
power of government to take private property for public use; state and national governments are required to give just compensation; 5th amendment- first provision in the Bill of Rights (due to selective incorporation) regulating state as well as national gov
Gregg v. Georgia (1976)
made capital punishment constitutional; overturned a previous decision which stated that capital punishment was unconstitutional
US v. Nixon
executive privilege does not work when president has committed a crime
corporate welfare
supported by taxes but rarely used by poor; ex: college loans, tax deductions
Boland Amendment
an act passed by congress that said the president could not support the Contras; Reagan ignored it during the Iran-Contra affair
presidential election
Elections held in years when the president is on the ballot.
act on behalf of the public in choosing whether and how to pursue cases against defendants; the person who tries a case in front of a court
congressional-executive agreements
formal agreement between the US president and leaders of other nations but still requires approval by Congress
administrative discretion
authority given by congress to federal bureaucracy to use reasonable judgement in implementing the laws
concurrent powers
Powers that the Constitution gives to both the national and state governments, such as the power to levy taxes.
procedural due process
how a law is applied, government must proceed by certain methods; limits how government may exercise power, laws may violate this if they are too vague; limits mostly the judicial and executive branch
types of economic interest groups
trade associations, labor unions, professional associations
Amendment that says trial by jury in common law cases
a decision made by a higher court (court of appeals, Supreme Court) or by a previous court that is binding on all other federal courts; stare decisis
an ideology that cherishes individual liberties, insists on minimal government, promoting a free market economy, noniterventionist in foreign policy and an absence in moral, economic, and social life
The study of the characteristics of populations
means-tested entitlements
entitlement programs whose benefits are restricted to those in need
New Jersey v. TLO
weakened student rights, Tinker v. Des Moines; gave schools ability to search students suspected of violating school rules without limit; weakened student rights
political information
includes such matters as who supports or opposes legislation and how strongly they feel about it.
social conservatives
an ultra-conservatism that focuses on morality and lifestyle; dislike abortion, same-sex marriages, and affirmative action; ex: Christian Right
Amendment that says no unreasonable searches and seizures, warrants only with probable cause
environmental impact statements
must be filed by federal agencies for any project using federal funds to asses the potential effect of the new construction or development on the enviroment
issue networks
temporary alliances among loosely connected groups for a specific issue
Period at the beginning of a new president's term during which the president enjoys generally positive relations with the press and Congress, usually lasting about six months.
how strongly people feel about their opinions.
party registration
The act of declaring party affiliation; required by some states when one registers to vote.
also, true bill; a formal written statement by a grand jury charging an individual with an offense
the dispensing of government jobs to persons who belong to the winning political party; "spoils system"
Annapolis Convention
A convention held in September 1786 to consider problems of trade and navigation, attended by five states and important because it issued the call to Congress and the states for what became the Constitutional Convention
political predisposition
A characteristic of individuals that is predictive of political behavior
nonprotected speech
lacks redeeming social value and is not essential to democratic deliberations and self-governance; eg: libel, obscenity, fighting words, commercial speech
ticket to the floor of the House
Hatch Act
bans civil servants from running for elected office; may not solicit money within their organization
competitive federalism
views the national government, 50 states, and thousands of local governments as competing with each other over ways to put together packages of services and taxes
Judicial activism
interpret constitution to reflect current views; keep constitution changing with the times (contemporary); loose interpretation; allows discretion when interpreting laws; psychological, sociological, physiological factors; allows the federal/central power to make decisions that help the people; accepts more writs of certiorari and more cases
budget process
agencies estimate» OMB » president» Congressional Budget Office » final budget resolution
Legal process whereby an alleged criminal offender is surrendered by the officials of one state to officials of the state in which the crime is alleged to have been committed.
poll tax
payment required for voting; abolished by the 24th amendment
political party
An organization that seeks political power by electing people to office so that its positions and philosophy become public policy.
Roemer v. Evans
CO created an amendment that prohibited counties from passing laws protecting homosexuals from discrimination; ruled unconstitutional
democratic consensus
widespread agreement on the fundamental principles of democratic government and the values that support them
ex post facto
retroactive criminal laws that make an act a crime after it was committed or that increase the sentence of a crime after it was committed
regressive tax
tax where people with lower incomes pay a larger percent of their income (sales tax)
selective incorporation
process that protects freedoms in the Bill of Rights within the scope of the 14th amendment; started by Gitlow v. New York
Pitchfork of Unelected
how things get done, pressure; lobbyists and think tanks, media, congressional staff
independent expenditures
money spent by individuals or groups, not candidates, in order to elect or defeat a candidate for office
double jeopardy
trial or punishment for the same crime by the same government; unconstitutional
Positions of President
commander in chief, diplomat in chief, administrator in chief,
Baker v. Carr
"one man, one vote," prohibited racial gerrymandering; ordered state legislative districs to be near equal in population as possible
White House Office
the personal staff of the President, incl the chief of staff, policy offices and political offices; incl. National Security Council
Lee Atwater
the Republican president maker (think Karl Rove); he made the Willie Horton commercial for George Bush Sr. against Dukakis
trade association
businesses with similar interests band together in order to push their ideas; eg: regulation issues
franking privilege
the privilege of incumbents of sending mail free to the electorate
Twenty First
Amendment that repealed prohibition; only amendment ratified through state special conventions
a consciousness of the nation-state and belonging to it.
cross-cutting cleavages
Divisions within society that cut across demographic categories to produce groups that are more heterogeneous or different; ex: religion
courts of appeal
ta court with appellate jurisdiciton that hears appeals from the district courts; 13 total, 2 in Washington DC, California is in 9, the biggest
Miller v California; quality or state of a work that taken as a whole appeals to a prurient interest in sex by depicting sexual conduct in a patently offensive way and that lacks serious literary, artistic, political or scientific value
looser rules, unanimous consent, foreign treaties ratified, extended debate, amendments allowed, filibusters allowed
leadership PAC
A PAC formed by an office holder that collects contributions from individuals and other PACs and then makes contributions to other candidates and political parties.
Twenty Second
Amendment that limits the number of presidential terms to two
proportional representation
An election system in which each party running receives the proportion of legislature seats corresponding to its proportion of the vote.
amicus curiae
"friend of the court," a brief written by interested parties not directly involved in the case in order to present arguments in additoin to those presented by the immediate parties of the case
money government provides to parents to pay their children's tuition in a public or private school of their choice
assistant floor leaders, informp party leaders of mood in House, keep head count for important votes, persuade members to vote with party
judicial review
The power of a court to refuse to enforce a law or a government regulation that in the opinion of the judges conflicts with the U.S. Constitution or, in a state court, the state constitution
full faith and credit clause
Clause in the Constitution (Article IV, Section 1) requiring each state to recognize the civil judgments rendered by the courts of the other states and to accept their public records and acts as valid
largest organization in the government with the largest mission; act as umbrellas over agencies
media consultants
campaign professionals who help candidates with media relations, advertising, and opinion polls
majority rule
governance according to the opinions of the majority; determined by regularly held elections
open seats
a seat that does not have an incumbent due to redistricting or retirement; very rare
single member districts
an electoral district in which voters choose one representative or official (not voting for more than one person for any position)
special election
Election in which voters replace members of the House of Representatives who have died or left office.
US v. Leon
weakened Mapp v. Ohio; allowed a "good faith" exception to the exclusionary rule as long as the core values of Mapp v. Ohio were not violated
national party convention
A national meeting of delegates elected in primaries, caucuses, or state conventions who assemble once every four years to nominate candidates for president and vice president, ratify the party platform, elect officers, and adopt rules.
interstate compact
An agreement among two or more states. Congress must approve most such agreements.
cases of equity
those cases that cannot be resolved by common law; judges may be asked to issue injunctions or award damages
prospective issue voting
Voting based on what a candidate pledges to do in the future about an issue if elected.
riders (nongermane)
may be added by senate; extra provisions in order to gain support or prevent it
separation of powers
Constitutional division of powers among the legislative, executive, and judicial branches, with the legislative branch making law, the executive applying and enforcing the law, and the judiciary interpreting the law
When two opposing sides feel intensely about an issue.
gender gap
The difference between the political opinions or political behavior of men and women.
Senior Executive Service
a flexible mobile corps of senior career executives who work closely with presidential appointees to manage government
gross domestic product (GDP)
The total output of all economic activity in the nation, including goods and services.
due process clause
no person shall be deprived by a STATE of life, liberty, or property without due process of law; Fourteenth Amendment
coattail effect
boost that candidates may get in an election because of the popularity of candidates above them on the ticket
discharge petitions
if signed by a majority in House, bill may bypass committee and go to floor; rescue tool
Brown v. Board (1954)
school segregation was unconstitutional; overturned Plessy v. Ferguson; Warren's court judicial activism, unanimous decision so that no one could dispute
John Marshall
created the precedent of judicial review; ruled on many early decisions that gave the federal government more power, especially the supreme court
Clinton's well fare reform
turned welfare over to states; public assistance is limited, must be searching for a job
Ways of Choosing Delegates
proportional representation, winner take all, delegate selection without commitment to a candidate, delegate selection and separate presidential poll
plea bargain
pleading guilty to a lesser crime in order to avoid standing trial for a more serious one; once someone pleads guilty they have no control over their sentence
People who favor state or local action rather than national action
Lemon v Kurtzman (aka Lemon case)
1) law must have a secular legislative purpose, 2) law must neither advance nor inhibit religion, 3) must avoid "excessive government entanglement" with religion
The right of a federal law or regulation to preclude enforcement of a state or local law or regulation.
recess appointments
appointments to federal judgeships (including to the supreme court) that are made when the Senate is in recess so the Senate cannot approve or deny them, they may stay in their positions until the Senate tells them to step down
War Powers Resolution 1974
if president commits troops Congress must be told w/in 48 hours and must approve w/in 60 days
because president was elected by nation, and he has wide public support; "political capital"
Federalist No. 10
written by James Madison; inevitability of factions; need for a federal govt. to combat (federalism, division of powers)
North American Free Trade Agreement
agreement between US, Canada, and Mexico; largest free trade zone in the world; signed by Bush Sr in 1992
mass media
the means of communication that reach the public
Shared values
liberty, equality, individualism, respect for the common person, democratic consensus, justice and the rule of law, patriotism, optimism, individualism
health care reform proposals
single payer, spending caps, individual responsibility for coverage
House of Representatives
tighter rules, tax bills, more powerful committee leaders, Rules Committee sets terms of debate, may have closed rule, no filibusters allowed
Articles of Confederation
The first governing document of the confederated states, drafted in 1777, ratified in 1781, and replaced by teh rpesent Constitution in 1789
substantive information
includes information like the impact of proposed laws
establishment clause
congress is prohibited form passing laws respecting the establishment of religion; this was meant to prevent government support of religion
Important house committees
appropriations, rules, ways and means, commerce
dual citizenship
citizenship in more than one country, usu. due to former country not giving a right to expatriation
US v. Curtiss-Wright
president given wide abilities for foreign policy
commercial speech
advertisements and commercials; not very protected
heightened scrutiny test
in order to pass a law the government must show that its classification serves "important governmental objectives;" (classifications of gender); unconstitutional to to protect a group because they are "innately inferior"
Plessy v. Ferguson
allowed segregation, "separate but equal"
socioeconomic status (SES)
A division of population based on occupation, income, and education.
nonpartisan election
A local or judicial election in which candidates are not selected or endorsed by political parties and party affiliation is not listed on ballots.
dual federalism
Views the Constitution as giving a limited list of powers to the national government and leaving the rest to sovereign states. Each level of government is dominant within its own sphere.
Bush Doctrine
US would attack any nation harboring terrorists, attack unilaterally, massive force, promote freedom and democracy
necessary and proper clause
Clause of the Constitution (Article I, Section 8, Clause 3) setting forth the implied powers of Congress. It states that Congress, in addition to its express powers, has the right to make all laws necessary and proper to carry out all powers the Constitution vests in the national government
inherent powers
The powers of the national government in foreign affairs that the Supreme Court has declared do not depend on constitutional grants but rather grow out of the very existence of the national government
responsibility to question executive branch officials to see whether agencies are complying with the wishes of Congress
public choice
Synonymous with "collective action," it specifically studies how government officials, politicians, and voters respond to positive and negative incentives.
Miller v. California
established guidelines for obscenity; lacks serious redeeming value
Government by religious leaders, who claim divine guidance
free rider
An individual who does not join a group representing his or her interests yet receives the benefit of the group's influence.
policy offices
advise the president on domestic and international issues
direct primary
Election in which voters choose party nominees
random sampling
In this type of sample, every individual has a known and random chance of being selected
party regulars
place the party first; value winning elections and understand that compromise and moderation may be necessary to reach the objective; realize it is important to keep the party together.
House- assigning members to committees
Dem- Steering and Policy Committee; Reps- Committee on Committees
McCulloch v. Maryland
John Marshall ruled that a state could not tax the Bank of the US; commerce clause, necessary and proper, "the power to tax involves the power to destroy"
Congressional Budget and Impoundment Act
congress regains control of the budget; creates the congressional budget office, required president to submit requests for recissions of appropriations
special/select committees
address temporary priorities of Congress, conduct investigations
National Bonus Plan
a reform plan that would give the winner of the popular vote 102 electoral votes, in order to secure that the popular candidate did win
Keynesian economics
(fiscal policy) Theory based on the principles of John Maynard Keynes, stating that government spending should increase during business slumps and be curbed during booms.
speech and debate clause
Congress cannot be sued for slander when in session
primary election
Election in which voters determine party nominees.
UAW v. Johnson Controls
allowed women to work in a battery factory even though there was a chance that working there would render them infertile
civic journalism
issue centered focus; talk to ordinary voters, write campaign stories from their point of view; media reform
midterm election
Election held midway between presidential elections.
racial gerrymandering
drawing election districts to ensure that African Americans or other minorities are in the minority in as many districts as possible; contrary to the 15th amendment
candidate appeal
How voters feel about a candidate's background, personality, leadership ability, and other personal qualities.
civil rights
the right not to be discriminated against because of race, religion, or gender; constitutional rights to the due process and equal protection clauses
formal powers of president
commander in chief, proposing treaties, appointment power, granting pardons, veto power, take care clause, special sessions of Congress
signing statement
a statement written when a president signs a bill into law; used to change the interpretation of the law
A person who is employed by and acts for an organized interest group or corporation to try to influence policy decisions and positions in the executive and legislative branches
cooperative federalism
stresses federalism as a system of intergovernmental relations in delivering governmental goods and services to the people and calls for cooperation among various levels of government.
executive agreement
a formal agreement between the US president and the leaders of other nations; does not require senate approval; Mexico smart border, NAFTA
fiscal policy
attempts to manage the economy by controlling taxing and spending for programs
Australian ballot
A secret ballot printed by the state
clear and present danger test
started by Schenck case; government cannot interfere with speech unless the speech presents a clear and present danger that it will lead to evil or illegal acts; to shout "Fire" falsely in a crowded theater
conference committee
also called the third house of congress; reconciles the passed versions of bils from both houses and then sends a nonamendable version back to both houses for passage
stare decisis
the rule of precedent, whereby a rule or law contained in a judicial decision is commonly viewed as bingind on judges whenever the same question is presented; Supreme Court overturns previous decisions very rarely and only with great cause
Belief in the superiority of one's nation or ethnic grou
Newdow case
although a lower court decided that the phrase "under god" was unconstitutional based on the separation of church and state, the supreme court ruled that this guy did not have legal standing to bring the case to court because he did not have custody of the daughter
The principle of a two-house legislature
blanket primary
Used to be held in Washington and California -- all voters could vote for any candidate, regardless of party.
a legal act giving citizenship to an alien
laissez-faire economics
Theory that opposed governmental interference in economic affairs beyond what is necessary to protect life and property.
fighting words
words that by their very nature inflict injury on those to whom they are addressed or incited them to acts of violence; very hard to prove
way of preventing legislation by delaying a bill hearing, force compromise; (asking for more time for a personal reason)
A tactic in which PACs collect contributions from like-minded individuals (each limited to $2,000) and present them to a candidate or political party as a "bundle," thus increasing the PAC's influence.
joint committee
members forom both House and Senate study an issue of interest, oversee congressional support agencies
Amendment that says powers not delegated to the US nor prohibited to the States are retained by the states
tests used for establishment clause
Lemon test, endorsement test, non-preferential test
iron triangle
congressional committees, interest groups, media
direct popular election
abolishing the electoral college and basing the presidency solely on the popular vote
majority-minority districts
when states redraw district lines in order to create districts in which minority groups make up the majority of the population; unconstitutional to make race the main factor when redrawing district lines upheld in Shaw v. Reno
Federal Register
An official document, published every weekday, which lists the new and proposed regulations of executive departments and regulatory agencies.
concurring opinion
an opinion that agrees with the majority opinion but for different reasons
Constitutional Convention
The convention in Philadelphia, May 25 to September 17, 1787, that debated and agreed upon the Constitution of the United States
Gideon v. Wainwright
ordered states to provide lawyers for those unable to afford them; Sixth and Fourteenth Amendments; Warren Court's judicial activism
Amendment that started direct election of senators, initiative, referendum, and recall
closed rule
no floor amendments may be made, usually given to prevent a bill from passing
reinforcing cleavages
Divisions within society that reinforce one another, making groups more homogeneous or similar; ex: social class, income,
Roberts Court
the current chief justice who is very conservative
Presidential refusal to allow an agency to spend funds that Congress authorized and appropriated
Santeria Case
prohibited a law in Florida banning animal sacrifice; upheld the free exercise clause in the First Amendment
US v. Lopez
court ruled that gun-free school zone act exceeded Congress' authority to regulate interstate commerce; Congress must defer to states
The Federalist
Essays promoting ratification of the Constitution, published anonymously by Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison in 1787 and 1788.
legislative veto
when Congress vetoes agency regulations; declared unconstitutional in INS v. Chadha
majority rule
Governance according to the expressed preferences of the majority
reasons for appointing judges
judicial ideology, age, no paper trail (Borked), senatorial courtesy, senate judiciary committee
non-preferential test
Constitution does not prohibit aid given to all religions as long as no religion is favored; favored by conservatives
government corporations
operates like a business corporation; allowed to make money through sale of services; US Postal Service
faithless elector
a member of the electoral college that votes differently than the majority in their district
Procedure whereby a certain number of voters may, by petition, propose a law or constitutional amendment and have it submitted to the voters
Conservative Christians who as a group have become more active in politics in the last two decades and were espeically influential in the 2000 presidential election.
Lawrence v. Texas
overturned Bowers v. Hardwick; a law stating that homosexual relations were sodomy is unconstitutional
a belief that limited government ensures order, competitive governments, and personal opportunity
techniques of interest groups
publicity through media, mass mailing, lobbying, litigation (court cases), supporting candidates, forming a political party
national supremacy
Constitutional doctrine that whenever conflict occurs between the constitutionally authorized actions of the national government and those of a state or local government, the actions of the federal government prevail.
Congressional Record
a publication of all congressional proceedings
substantive due process
what the government can do; government should not be allowed to do certain things; mostly limits the legislative branch; helped economic regulation
continuing resolutions
proclamations extending authority for federal spending for a specified amount
selective perception
people see and hear what they want to in media messages
advantages of incumbency
gerrymandered districts, franking privileges, media and name recognition, PAC and interest group money, case work
district trial courts
the lowest level of federal courts; 97 districts across the country
original jurisdiction
the authority of a court to hear a case in the "first instance"
Gitlow v. New York
established selective incorporation of the Bill of rights; states cannot deny freedom of speech; protected through the 14th amendment
Amendment that protects freedom of religion (exercise and practice), speech, assembly, redress of grievances
an economic and governmental system based on public ownership of the means and production of exchange
popular sovereignty
ultimate power resides in the people; government serves the people
natural rights
aka human rights; everyone has an equal right to protection against arbitrary treatment and an equal right to the liberties in the Bill of Rights; John Locke,
Supreme Court Original Jurisdiction
cases that involve ambassadors, other public ministers, other diplomats, cases that involve a state or states as a party
literacy tests
literacy requirement (understanding of the constitution) as a condition of voting
Tinker v. Des Moines
students wore black armbands in protest of the Vietnam War; student's rights are not "shed at the schoolhouse gates," symbolic speech allowed
name recognition
voters vote with familiar incumbents
People who favor national action over action at the state and local levels
factors that affect voting
race, ethnicity, wealth, income, gender, religion, education
strict scrutiny test
in order to prove a law constitutional there must be a "compelling government interest" to justify a classification (of people based on race, etc.) and no less restrictive way to accomplish the purpose; also tests laws that interfere with fundamental rights
redistributive policy
programs that take benefits from some (taxes) and give to others; medicaid, food stamps
political offices
help president manage image, get reelected
Buckley v. Valeo
this SC decision stated that spending money was a form of symbolic speech and that therefore individual expenditures could not be limited
part-time citizens
Participate selectively in elections; are not greatly interested in politics and government, pay only minimal attention to the news, rarely discuss candidates or elections with others.
attentive public
Those citizens who follow public affairs carefully
Procedure for submitting to popular vote the removal of officials from office before the end of their term.
progressive tax
tax graduated so that people with higher incomes pay a larger percent of their income
informal powers of president
war powers, executive privilege, executive orders, media, precedent, mandate
executive orders
formal order by president to direct action by the federal bureaucracy,
Constitutional arrangement in which sovereign nations or states, by compact, create a central government but carefully limit its power and do not give it direct authority over individuals
types of equality
social- no titles, no discrimination; political- protection under the law, equal voting power; opportunity- to improve economic status
time, place, and manner regulations
test for public assemblies; time- how long, what time; place- may limit assembly to certain streets; manner- what assembly is doing
Weakening of partisan preferences that points to a rejection of both major parties and a rise in the number of independents.

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