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Psychology Final Terms

Terms

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Hallucinations
False sensory experiences, such as seeing something in the absence of an external visual stimulus
Consciousness
an alert cognitive state in which you are aware of yourself and your situation
Encoding
Set of mental operations that prople perform on sensory info to convert that info into a form that is usable by the brains storage system
Heredity
The biological process whereby genetic factors are transmitted from one generation to the next
Tolerance
The act of tolerating something
Autonomy
The quality or state of being self-governing; independence
Groupthink
The mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision making group overrides a realistic appaisal of alternatives
Illusions
Misrepresentations of physical stimuli.
Introspection
A method of self-observation in which participants report on their thoughts and feelings.
Insight
Grasping the inner nature of things intuitively
Optic Nerve
The cranial nerve that serves the retina
Ageism
Prejudice or discrimination based on age, especially against the elderly.
Insomnia
An inability to sleep
Reinforcement
A stimulus that strengthens or weakens the behavior that produced it
Psychiatry
A branch of medicine that deals with mental, emotional, or behavioral disorders.
Correlation
Measure of a relationship between two variables or sets of data.
Stagnation
A discontinuation of development and a desire to recapture the past, characteristics of midle age.
Token Economy
An operant conditioning procedure that rewards desired behavior
Schizophrenia
any of several psychotic disorders characterized by distortions of reality and disturbances of thought and language and withdrawal from social contact
Generativity
The desire in middle age to use one's accumulated wisdon to guide future generations.
Hormones
Chemical "messengers" of the endocrine system that are released into the blood
Memory
The cognitive processes whereby past experience is remembered
Delusion
An erroneous belief that is held in the face of evidence to the contrary
Pupil
Contractile aperture in the iris of the eye
Retina
The light-sensitive membrane covering the back wall of the eyeball
Eustress
Good or positive stress
Reliability
The trait of being dependable or reliable; The extent to which a test yields consistent results
Homeostasis
The steady state of physiological condition of the body
Intellectualization
A defense mechanism that uses reasoning to block out emotional stress and conflict
Confabulation
A plausible but imagined memory that fills in gaps in what is remembered
Psychophysics
The study of relationships between the physical characteristics of stimuli, such as their intensity, and our psychological experience of them
Structuralist
Psychologist who studied the basic elements that make up the conscious mental experiences.
Phobia
An anxiety disorder characterized by extreme and irrational fear of simple things or social situations
Socialization
The process of learning the rules of behavior of the culture within which someone is born and will live.
Hypnosis
A state of great mental and physical relaxation during which a person is very open to suggestion
Heuristic
A simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgments and solve problems efficiently
Withdrawal
the act of withdrawing; departure
Archetype
an original model on which something is patterned
Superego
The part of the unconscious mind that acts as a conscience
Stereotype
A distorted, exaggerated, or oversimplified image applied to a category of people
Transference
The process whereby emotions are passed on or displaced from one person to another
Psychologist
A scientist who studies the mind and behavior of humans and animals
Bipolar Disorder
A mental disorder characterized by episodes of mania and depression
Internalization
The process in which people take as their own and accept as binding the norms, values, beliefs, and language needed to participate in the larger community
Interference
The process that occurs when remembering certain information is hampered by the presence of other information
Shaping
The process of reinforcing responses that come successively closer to the desired response
Biofeedback
A system for electonically recording, amplifying and feeding back information regarding a subtle physiological state, such as blood pressre or muscle tension
Persuasion
The act of inducing others to undertake a course of action or embrace a point of view.
Algorithm
An established procedure for solving a problem or equation
Placebo Effect
Any effect on behavior caused by the administration of an inert substance or condition, which is assumed to be an active agent
Neurons
The long, thin cell that constitute the structural and functional unit of nerve tissue along which messages travel to and from the brain.
Narcolepsy
A sleep disorder characterized by sudden and uncontrollable episodes of deep sleep
Syntax
The grammatical arrangement of words in sentences
Hypothesis
An assumption or prediction about behavior or an educated guess about the relationship between two variables that is tested through scientific research.
Id
Primitive instincts and energies underlying all psychic activity
Ego
The conscious mind
Resynthesis
The process of combining old ideas with new one's and reoranizing feelings in order to renew one's identity
Ideology
Comprehensive set of beliefs about the nature of people and about the role of an institution or government
Lobes
Divisions of the lungs by fissues, two in the left lung and three in the right
Comparable Worth
Principle of equal pay for different jobs of equal worth.
Norms
Rules and expectations by which a society guides the behavior of its members
Generalization
Transfer of a response learned to one stimulus to a similar stimulus
Complementarity
The interrelation of reciprocity whereby one thing supplements or depends on the other
Schemas
Cognitive structures that influence how information from the environment is perceived, stored, and remembered
Perception
The process by which incoming stimuli activate our sensory receptors eyes, ears, taste buds, skin, and so on.
Gestalt
A configuration or pattern of elements so unified as a whole that it cannot be described merely as a sum of its parts
Conformity
Acting in accord with group norms or customs.
Obedience
The trait of being willing to obey; the act of obeying
Resistance
The action of opposing something that you disapprove or disagree with
Constancy
The tendency to perceive certain objects in the same way regardless of changing angle, distance, or lighting
Gerontology
Study of the elderly; aging
Empathy
Identification with and understanding of another's situation, feelings, and motives
Forebrain
The anterior portion of the brain
Discrimination
Unfair treatment of a person or group on the basis of prejudice
Chunking
The configuration of smaller units of information into large coordinated units
Genes
Sequence of DNA that codes for a protein and thus determines a trait
Hindbrain
Includes cerebellum and two structures found in lower part of brain stem; Essential functions breathing muscles tones
Kinesthesis
The ability to feel movements of the limbs and body
Semantics
The study of language meaning
Clique
A small, exclusive group of people within a larger group.
Validity
The degree to which an operational definition measures what it claims to measure.
Recombination
Rearranging elements of a problem in order to arrive at an original solution
Psychology
The scientific, systematic study of behavior & mental process.
Midbrain
Segment of brainstem that lies between the hindbrain and forebrain Sensory processing vision and hearing
Rationalization
Process where by an individual seeks to explain an often unpleasent emotion or behavior in a way that will preserve his or her self esteem.
Modeling
the act of representing something; learning by imitating others; copying behavior
Psychoanalysis
A set of techniques for exploring underlying motives and a method of treating various mental disorders
Thanatology
Study of dying and death.
Extinction
In operant conditioning, the loss of a behavior when no consequence follows it; In classical conditioning, the disappearance of a conditioned response when an unconditioned stimulus no longer follows a conditioned stimulus
Theory
A set of assumptions used to explain why something is the way it is and happen s the way it does.
Anxiety
A vague unpleasant emotion that is experienced in anticipation of some misfortune
Catharsis
A clensing or purging that releases emotions
Addiction
Being abnormally tolerant to and dependent on something that is psychologically or physically habit-forming
Meditation
Continuous and profound contemplation or musing on a subject or series of subjects of a deep or abstruse nature
Sensation
Fhe faculty through which the external world is apprehended
Androgynous
Combining or blending traditionally male and female characteristics.
Psychotherapy
The treatment of mental or emotional problems by psychological means
Visualization
A mental image that is similar to a visual perception, a mental image that is similar to a visual perception
Altruism
The quality of unselfish concern for the welfare of others

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