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AP Bio Ch 26


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when was the earth created?
4.5 billion years ago
when did life on Earth originate?
3.5 to 4 billion years ago
what are stromatolites?
they are banded domes of sedementary rock that contain some of the Earth's oldest fossils.
According to the fossil record, what were the first life forms on Earth?
What shows that there are two kinds of prokaryotes; and what are they?
RNA sequence data shows the differences between Bacteria and Archaea
What is the evolutionary relationship between Bacteria and Archaea?
they diverged about 3 billion years ago
There is strong evidence that shows that eukaryotic cells evolved from ____.
symbiotic community of prokaryotes. It is believed that the mitochondria and chloroplasts were once individual organisms.
what are protists?
large, disparate group of unicellular eukaryotes and some simply, unspecialized multicellular organisms.
Where did plants, fungi and animals come from?
Precambrian unicellular eukaryotes
Most scientists believe that life on Earth developed from... that became... that could...
developed from nonliving material that became molecular aggregates that could self-replicate and carry out metabolism.
What was the atmosphere on early Earth like?
little O2, lighting, volcanin activity, meteorite ardments, UV radiation
List the four steps that outline the theory that suggests that the first organisms were products of chemical evolution.
1) abiotic synthesis and accumulation of small organic molecules (amino acids and nucleotides)
2) monomers joined into polymers (amino acids and nucleotides)
3)aggregation abiotically produced molecules into protobionts
4)the origin of heredity
what are protobionts?
They maintain different internal environments than their exterior. They are semi-permeable, can be excited, can carry out metabolism
What did Oparin and Haldane theorize?
-conditions of early Earth favored chem reactions that synthesised organic materials from inorganic matter.
-the atmosphere enhanced the joining of simple molecules to form complex ones
-lighting and UV provided energy for reactions
Who tested Oparin and Haldane's theory?
Miller and Urey
Describe the experiment of Miller and Urey.
they produced amino acids from inorganic molecules. They simulated the conditions of early Earth.
What did the atmosphere in Miller and Urey's experiment consist of?
H2O, H2, CH4, NH3
what are deep-sea vents?
gaps in Earth's crust where hot water and minerals gush into deep oceans.
Describe the role clay may have had in chemical evolution.
Organic material (amino acids) could stick to its surface and its electrons could promote their bonding.
What is a coacervate?
a stable droplet that tends to self-assemble when a suspension of macromolecules is shaken and then cooled.
What are liposomes?
from spontaneously when the organic materials include certain lipids. these lipids form a bilayer.
What did Whittaker do?
5 kingdom system
What was the first genetic material and why?
RNA because it could self replicate with zinc as a catalyst
What is panspermia?
organic compounds reached Earth on meteorites and comets that hit the Earth.
What was absent from the atmosphere of early Earth?
oxygen, N2, CO2, H2, Co, water vapor
Describe the big bang theory?
superdense mass exploded and matter and energy hurled into space
What did Hubble determine about the universe?
By studying wave lengths of light (red long) he was able to determine that the universe is 15 billion years old.
What are three explanations for life on earth?
1. life originated on another planet and traveled to Earth
2. Life originated on earth by unknown means on Earth
3. life evolved from nonliving substance through interactions with the environment.
What is the heterotroph hypothesis and who came up with it?
First life forms were anaerobic heterotrophs. Swimming in food so there was no advantage to being autotrophic.
What are three components to Chemical Evolution?
1. Abiotic Synthesis of Organic Monomers
2. Abiotic Polymerization
3. Self-Assembly of Protobionts
What did Margulis say?
She suggested that mitochondria and cholorplasts were originally separate units but through endosymbiosis, they were engulfed by a big cell.
What was Linneaus' classification based on?
anatomy and morphology. He separated everything into plants vs. animals.
What are monera?
What are eukaryotes divided into?
unicellular/simple multicellular aka protista
What are protista?
unicellular or simple multicellular
Multicellular eukaryotes are divided into?
Autotrophs and heterotrophs
Who are the autotrophs?
What are the heterotrophs divided into?
Fungi and Animalia
What are fungi?
What are animalia?
What are three alternate classification systems?
6 kingdoms, 3 domain, 8 kingdom.
Describe the 6 kingdom system.
Eubacteria, Archaea Bacteria, Protista, Plantae, Fungi and Animalia.
Describe the 3 doman system.
Bacteria, Archaea Bacteria, Eukaryotes.
Describe the 8 kingdom system.
Bacteria, Archae Bacteria, Archae Zoa, Chromatista, Protists, Plantae, Fungi, Animalia
What are Archae Zoa?
primitive eukaryotes that lack mitochondrio and chloroplasts.
What are chromatista?
Producers for marine life, no specialized tissue, brown algae, sea kelp.
How are chromatista and plantae different?
-have chlorophyll C
-have brown pigment
-can photosynthesize but they dont store their food as starch

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