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Biology 2 Mike


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Bacteria are what type of cells
Prokaryotes are separated into which two groups?
Archaea and Bacteria
Eukaryotes are grouped into these 4 groups
protists, fungi, plants, animals
What is a chromatin?
a long strand of DNA and proteins they condense into chromasomes
1" chromosome contains DNA this length...
583 feet
WHo discovered DNA?
Dr. Johann Friedrich Meisner
what did Dr. Mesiner first call DNA?
Who was the first to coin the term nucleic acid?
Richard Altmann
What was the conclusion found in the Hershey Chase experiment of 1952?
DNA is what directs Bacteria to produce more
Who got screwed out of the Nobel Prize in 1962?
Rosalind Franklin
What is DNA's structure called?
the double helix
How many strands compose RNA?
What is the building block of DNA and RNA called?
a nucleotide
What are nucleotides composed of?
a pentose sugar, a nitrogenous base, and a phosphate group
What are Purines?
2 ring structures( Adenine and Guanine)
What are Pyrimidines?
One ring structures(uracil, Thymine and Cytosine)
What Pyrimidines and Purines does DNA contain?
adenine, guanine, Cytosine, and THymine
What is the difference between DNA and RNA in regard to nucleotides?
Uracil instead of Thymine
What links the sugars of each side of DNA?
a phosphate group
How many hydrogen bonds in a T A pair? a C G?
two, three
What other organelles is DNA found in?
Mitochondria(animals) chloroplasts (plants)
What does the endosymbiotic theory suggest?
one prokaryote engulfed another symbiotically and the two became mutual partners
What is a codon?
3 nucleotide sequence of DNA and messenger RNA
whats an anticodon?
3 nucleotide sequence of tRNA
Whats a gene?
a set of codons, and codes for a single polypeptide
double strand of DNA
position on a chromosome where a gene resides
nuclear plus mitochondrial DNA
amino acid?
20, used for building polypeptides
proteins and enzymes?
functional polypeptides
where does transcription begin?
inside the nucleus
after transcription where does mRNA go?
the cytoplasm for translation
what is the average polypeptide length in humans?
425 AA
what produces the raw materials for natural selection?
when does nuclear division occur?
during mitosis
when is dna replicated?
during the S phase
what do chromatin fibers consist of?
DNA and proteins
what does karyotype mean?
the number of chromosomes in a eukaryote
Mitosis: What happens in interphase?
DNA replicates
Mitosis:what happens in Prophase?
chromatin supercoils into chromosomes
Mitosis: what happens in prometaphase?
nuclear envelope breaks down..chromatids now connected to poles
Mitosis: what happens in Metaphase?
sister chromatids align along equatorial plate
Mitosis:what happens in anaphase?
sister chromatids separate and move to opposite poles
Mitosis: what happens in telophase?
nuclei and nucleoli reform cell enters interphase
which process meiosis or mitosis has more steps?
what is a genotype?
the complete set of genes related to a trait or a set of traits
what is a phenotype?
the observable characteristics of an individual due to its genotype and interplay with the environment
what is a mutation?
a detectable, heritable change in the genotype not caused by recombination
what percentage of genetic mutations are harmful?
what are the 4 types of chromosomal mutations?
deltions, duplications, inversions, and translocations
when were cells known as the fundamental units of life?
the mid 1800's
whats the oldest concept of heredity?
preformation, god placed seeds for everything that would populate the earth
whats pangenisis?
a term coined by Darwin but the idea dates back to Hippoclitus, gemmules
who discovered sperm and when?
van leeowhick, 1696
who discovered Ovum?
De Graaf
Nicolas de Maalbrache...who was he?
french rationalist..wanted to put the thinking of the church with descartes..his work led to the school of natural theology
who wrote the developmental history of animals?
Karl Von Baer
Blending Heritance
the view that traits from each parent blended to form intermediaries
the idea that organisms developed from an undifferentiated mass
different forms of a gene
particulate theory of inheritance
the units responsible for inheritance are discreet particles that exist within an organism in pairs, separate during gamete formation, and retain their integrity
what is mendels first law?
the law of segregation(telophase)
What is mendels second law?
the law of Independent assortment
what are homologous pairs of chromosomes called?
Who had a very theistic view of classification?
Who was one of the first to classify living things based on logical division
the history of classifying things began with?
Aristotles grouping to similarities is now called...
who developed the system of classification we still use today?
what were some of the drawbacks of linnean classification?
based on essentialist logic, all identification was based only on structure
what is the practice of classifying living things called?
what is studying the evolutionary relationships among living things called?
who provided one of the significant contributions to the study of nature in the western world?
emperor frederick 2 of prussia
who wrote one of the classics of biology?
John Ray
who was the founder of natural theology?
Aurelius Augustinus
in what period of time did natural theology peak?
This guy believed everything was in a state of flux
Who was given credit for being the guy to argue that chance played a major role
Who recognized the true organic nature of fossils?
de Maillet and Xenophanes
Who was the first to publish a scientific age of the earth?
George Louis De Clerc Buffon, 168,000 years old
who is now considered the father of evolutionism?
James Hutton
changed geology from a sport to a true science
what is thinking of the world as a steady state called?
Who published principles of geology?
Charles Lyell
the two groups of geologists?
uniformists and catastrophists

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