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AP Psych Cognitive Development


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Jean Piaget
1920s working to develop questions for children's intelligence tests
interpreting one;s new experience in terms of one's exsisting schemas
adapting ones current understandings (schema) to incorporate new information
all the mental activities associated w/ thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating
sensorimotor stage
from birth to 2 yrs, during which infants know the works mostly in terms of their sensory impressions and motor activites
object permanence
awareness that things continue to exsist even when not perceived.
-8 months infants exhibit memor for things no longer seen
preoperational stage
2-6 or 7 yrs child learns the use of lnguage but does not yet comprehend the mental operations of concrete logic.
the principle that roperties such as mass, volumes, and numbers remin the same despite changes in the forms of objects
preoperational child's difficutly taking another's point of view
theory of mind
david premack and guy woodruff- people's ideas about their own and others' mental statues- about their feelings, perceptions, and thoughts and the behavior these might predict
disorder that appears in childhood and is marked by defiecient communication, social interaction, and understanding of others' states of mind- hve difficulty understanding sally dolls state of mind differs from their own and difficult reflection own mental states
asperger syndrome
normal intelliegence, accompanied by exceptional skill or talent in specific areas, but deficient social and communication skills
concrete operational stage
6 o 7-11- during which children gain the mentl operations that enable them to think logically about concrete events
formal operatinal stage
12- people begin to think logically about their abstract concepts
strager anxiety
the fear of stranges that infants commonly display- begin 8 months
an emotional ties with another person; shown in young children by their seeking closeness to the caregiver and showing distress on separation
safe haven and secure base
parent infant emotional communication occurs via touch prividing w safe haven when distressed and a secure bae from which to explore
criticl period
an optimal period shortly after birth when an organism's exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces proper development
process by which certain animals form atachments during a critical period very early in life
insecure detachment
less likely to explore their surroundings, may cling to mother
secure detachmetn
in mother;s presence they play comfortably, happily exploring new environment
characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity
erik erikson- basic rust
sense that the world is predictable and trustworthy; said to be formed during infancy by appropriate experiences w/ responsive caregivers
self concept
a sense of one's identity and personal worth- age 12
parents impose rules and expect obedience- result in children w/ less self esteem and les social skills
permissive parents
submit to their children;s desires, make few demans, and use little punishment- more aggressive and immature
authoritative parents
are both demanding and responsive. they exert conrol not only by setting rules and eforcing them by also by explaining the reasons and encouragin open discussion and allowing exceptions when makin gthe rules (just right)
-children w/ highest selfesteem, social competence, and self reliance
correlation is not causation
traits can influence parenting more than parenting styles or competent parents and competent children share genes that predispose social competence
the years spent morping the child to adult
the period of sexual maturation during which a person becomes capable of reproducting- 2 year period rapid pysical development 11- girls, 13- boys
primary sex characteristics
the body structures- ovaries, testes, and external genitalia that make sexual reproduction possible develop dramatically
secondary sex characteristics
nonreproductive sexual characteristics, such as female breasts and hips, male voice quailty, and body hair
the first menstrual period- 12
firs male ejaculation occurs during nocturnal emiddion
fatty tissue around axons that speeds up neurtransmission causes frontal lobe development
formal operation
piaget's term for adolescents capability of abstract logic: if this, then that
moral reasoning
the thinking that occurs as we consider right and worng
moral dilemmas: 3 levels of moral thinking: preconventional morality, conventional morality, postconventional morality
preconventional morailty
before 9- children have a preconventional morality of self interest: they obey to avoid punishment or gain concrete rewards
convntional morality
early adolescence- morality that evolves to a more conventional level tha tcares for others and upholds laws and social rules because they are the laws and rules
postconventional morality
affirms peoples agreed upon rights or follows what one personally perceives as basic ethical preinciples- middle class european and n american educated who prize individualism- cpmtrpversoa;
social intuitionist
moral feelings preced moral reasoning
delay gratificatin
more socially responsible, academically successful, and productive
erik erikson
each stage life psychosocial task- crisis that needs resolution
ones sense of self- the adolescent's task is to solidify a sense of self by testing and integrating varioius roles
forming close relationships
william damon
adolescents what to achieve a purpose- a diesire to accomplish something personally meaningful that makes a difference to the world beyond oneself
emerging adulthood
not yet settled phase of life from 18- mid twenties
trust v. mistrust
infancy- if needs are dependably ment, infants develop a sense of basic trust
autonomy vs. shame and doubt
toddlerhood 1-2 yyrs- toddlers learn to exercise will and do things for themselves, or they doubt their abilities
initiative vs. guilt
preschooler 3-5 preschoolers learn to initiate tasks and carry out plans, aor they feel guilty about efforts to be independent
competence vs. inferiority
6-puberty children learn the pleasure of applying themselves to tasks, or they feel inferior
identity vs. role confustion
adolescence- teenagers work at refining a sense of self by testing roles and then integrating them to form a single identity, or they become confused about who they are
intimacy vs. isolation
young adulthood- 20s-40s- young adults struggle to form close relationships to gain the capacit for intimate love, or they feel socially isolated
generitivity vs. stagnation
middle adulthood 40-60- in the middle age, people discover a sense oof contributing to the world, usually through family and wok, or they may feel a lack of purpose
integrity vs. despair
late adulthod 60+- when reflection on his or her life, the older audlty may feel a sense of satisfaction or failure
the time of natural cessation of menstruatioin; also orefers to the biologcal changes a woman experiences as her ability to reproduce declines- 5- years- reduction in estrogen
mental erosion caused by small strokes, brain tumors, alcoholism
alzheimer's disease
3% of pop ny 75- progressive and irreversible brain disorder characterized by gradual deterioration of memory, reasoning, language, and physical functioning
-destroys memory then reasoning
-after yrs emotiinally flat, then disoriented and uninhibited, incontent, then menatally vacant
-deterioration neurotransmitters aceylcholine
prespective memory
remember to...
cross-sectional study
people of differen ages are conmpared w/ one another- older adults give fewer correct answers that younger
longitudinal study
research in what the same people are restudied over a long period of time
crystallized intelligence
one's accumulated knowledge and verbal skills, tesnds to increase w/ age
fulid intelligence
one's ability to reason speedily and abstractly; tends to decrease during late adulthood
midlife transition
struggle, regret, feeling struck down by life in 40s transition to middle adulthood
-caused by illness, divorce, job loss- not age
social clock
culturally preferrred timing of social events such as marriage, parenthood, and retirement
being productive and supporting future generations
feeling that life has been worthwhile and meaningful
experience and learning
development as slow, continuous shaping process
development sequence of genetically predispose stages or steps
1. first 2 years of life is poor basis for predicting a person's eventual traits , personality stabilitzes as grow loder
2. characteristic- temperament more stable than others, social attitue
3. all change w/ age- conscientiousness increases during 2-s
evolutionary psychology
behaviors, emotions, thinking apacitites that seemingly allow our distant ancestors to survive, reproduce, and send genes into the future-- works backwards
natural selection
principle among the range of inherited trait variations, those that lead to increased reprodcution and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations
a random error in gene replication that leads to a change
assumed characteristics as male or female- 45/46 chromosomes unisex
prenatal environment
nurture begins in teh womb- 2/3 twins share same placenta- twinswho develop w/ seaparate placenta less similar in psychological traits- self control and social competence
after brain maturation provides us w/ an abundance of neural connctions, experience preserves our activated connections while allowing unused connections to degenerate
freudian psychology
blames schizophrenia and asthma on bad mothering-- parents do matter
selection effect
kids seek out peer w/ similar attitudes and interests
behavior genetics
relative effect of genes (nature) and environment (nurture) on our individual differences in behvavior and mental processes
parents, peers, and culture
influences beliefs and values,interests, foot tastes, language, and appearance
every non genetic influence, from prenatal nutrition to the people and thigns around us
behavior geneticists
the study of the relative power and limits of genetic and environmental influences on behavior
threadlike sturcutres made of DNA molecules that contain the genes
deoxyribonucleic acid- complex molecule containing the genetic information that makes up the chromosomes
biochemical units of heredity that make up the chromosomes; a segment of DNA capable of synthesizing a protein
the complete instructions for the making of organisms, consisting of all the genetic material in that organism's chromosomes
gene complexes
human traits influenced by them, many genes acting in concert- height of face, size of vertevrae- influence by different genes interacting w/ env
identical twins
develop froma single fertilized egg that splits into 2- genetically identical
fraternal twins
develop from separate fertilized eggs. genetically no closer than brother and sisters
person's characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity
the proportion of variation among individuals that we can attribute to genes.
the effect of one factor (env) depends on another factor (heredity)
molecular genetics
subfield of biology that studies the ,p;eci;ar strictire amd fimctopm pf gemes
the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, values, and traditions shared by a group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next
preservation of innovation
enjoyment of cultures landmarks, language,
undertood rules for accepted and expected behavior, they prescribe proper behvaior
personal space
the buffer zone we like to maintain around our bodies
giving priority to one's own goals over group goals and defining one's identity in terms of personal attritbutes rather than group identificaitons
giving priority to the goals of one's group adn defining one's identity accordingly
family self
what shames the child sames the family, visa versa
physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt someone
males answer syndrom
women more likely to admit that they don't know an answer
women--use conversation more to explore relationships; men use it to communicate solutions
X chromsome
sex chromosome found in both men and women- female 2X's, males 1--X from each parent produces male
Y chromosome
found only in males
most important of male sex hormones. both males and females have it, but additional tesosterone in males stimulates the growth of the male sex organs in the fetus and teh development of the male's sex characteristics during puberty
a set of expectations about a social position, defining hwo those in the position ought to behave
gender roles
a set of expected behaviors for males and for females
gender identity
sense of male or female
the acquisiton of a traditional masculine or feminine role
social learning theory
we learn social behavior by observing and imitating and by being rewarded or punished
gender schema theory
children learn from their cultures a concept of what it means to be male and female and that they adjust their behavior accordingly
occam's razor
principle that we should prefer the simples of competing explanations
developmental psychology
a branch of psychology that studies physical, cognitive, and social chage throughout the life span
genetic inheritance and experience influence development
continuity/ stages
development a gradual, continuous process, or does it proceed through a sequence of separate stages
do our early personalitite trais persist through life or do we become different perons as age?
fertilized eggs, enters 2 week period rapid cell division and develops into empbryo
to speciale in structure and function
developing human organism from about 2 weeks after fertilization through second month
developing human orgaism 9 weeks after conception to birth
agents, such as chemical and viruses, that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm
fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)
physcial and cognitive abnormalitlies in children caused by a pregnant woman's heavy drinking.
rooting reflex
baby's tendency, when touched on the cheek, to turn toward the touch, open the mouth, and search for the nipple
decreasing responsiveness with repeated stimuation. as infants gain familiarity w/ repeated exposure to visual stimulus, their interest wanes and they look away sooner
biological and growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior, relatively uninfluenced by experience
bilogical maturation
development of cerebellum- creates readiness tolear walking at age 1
human personality arises from conflict between aggressive, pleausre seeking biological impuses and the internalized social restrains against them
result of efforts to resolve the basic conflict- to express impulses in ways that bring satisfation w/o also brining gulit or punishment
contains a reservoir of unconscious psychic energy that strives to satisfy basic sexual and aggrssive drive.
pleasure principle
id operates on it- demainding immediate gratification
largely conscious- executive part of personality that mediats amonng the demans of the id, sugerego, and reality
reality principle
ego operates on it- satisfying id;s desires in ways that will realistically bring pleasure rather tahan pain
4-5 yrs begins-- part of personality that represents internalized ideals and provides standards for judgement (conscience) and for future aspirations
-ego reconciles ego and id
phallic stage
genital stimulation-unconscious sexual desires for their mother and jealousy and hatred for father, whom they consider rival
oedipus complex
boys sexual desired toward his mother and feelings of jealousy and hatred for the rival fater
elextra complex
girl's version of oedipus complex
identification process
children incorporate their parent's values into their developing superegos
object relations theorists
early childhood relations w parents influence our developing identiy, personality, frailties
lingering focus of pleasure- seeking energies at an earlies psychosexual stage, in which conflicts were unresolved

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