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biological basis of behavior 2


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adrenal cortex
outer covering of adrenal gland each of three cellular layers produces different hormones
afferent fiber
axon that carries nerve impulses from a sensory organ to the central nervous system or from one region of interest to another
efferent fiber
axon that carries information from the nervous system to the periphery
frontal division of the neural tube containing the cerebral hemispheres, the thalamus and the hypothalamus
acetylcholine (ACh)
acetylcholine (ACh): One of the best-known synaptic transmitters. Acetylcholine acts as an excitatory transmitter at synapses between motor nerves and skeletal muscles but as an inhibitory transmitter between the vagus nerve and the heart muscle.
acetylcholinesterase (AChE)
acetylcholinesterase (AChE): An enzyme that inactivates the transmitter acetylcholine both at synaptic sites and elsewhere in the nervous system.
accommodation: The process of focusing by the ciliary muscles and the lens to form a sharp image on the retina
short for acetycholine
actin: A protein that, along with myosin, mediates the contraction of muscle fibers. See Figure 11.7
Acquired Dyslexia
Acquired Dyslexia that occurs as a result of injury or disease. See also alexia
axon: A single extension from the nerve cell that carries nerve impulses from the cell body to other neurons. See Figures 2.3, 2.5.
axon collateral
axon collateral: A branch of an axon from a single neuron.
axon hillock:
axon hillock: A cone-shaped area from which the axon originates out of the cell body. Depolarization must reach a critical threshold at the axon hillock for the neuron to transmit a nerve impulse. See Figure 2.4.
axonal transport
axonal transport: The transportation of materials from the neuron cell body to distant regions in the dendrites and axons, and from the axon terminals back to the cell body
neuron: The basic unit of the nervous system. Each neuron is composed of a cell body, receptive extension(s) (dendrites), and a transmitting extension (axon). Also called nerve cell. See Figures 2.2, 2.3.
behavioral intervention
behavioral intervention: An approach to finding relations between bodily variables and behavioral variables that involves intervening in the behavior of an organism and looking for resultant changes in body structure or function. See Figure 1.3. Contrast with somatic intervention
somatic intervention
somatic intervention: An approach to finding relations between bodily variables and behavioral variables that involves manipulating body structure or function and looking for resultant changes in behavior. See Figure 1.3. Contrast with behavioral intervention.
ontogeny: The process by which an individual changes in the course of its lifetime -- that is, grows up and grows old
neural plasticity
neural plasticity: The ability of the nervous system to change in response to experience or the environment.
correlational approach
correlational approach: An approach to finding relations between bodily variables and behavioral variables that involves finding the extent to which a particular body measure co-varies with a particular behavioral measure. See Figure 1.3
reductionism: The scientific strategy of breaking a system down into increasingly smaller parts in order to understand it completely
phrenology: The belief that bumps on the skull reflect enlargements of brain regions responsible for certain behavioral faculties. See Figure 1.12
localization of function
localization of function: The concept that specific brain regions are responsible for various types of experience, behavior, and psychological processes
Broca's area
Broca's area: An area in the frontal region of the left hemisphere of the brain that is involved in the production of speech. See Figures 19.6, 19.7, 19.8
Broca's aphasia
Broca's aphasia: An impairment in speech production; related to damage in Broca's area. See Figure 19.7
Paul Broca 1824-1880
French surgeon proved language area was mediated in a specialized are now called Broca's area. He was also a believer that women had inferior brains
Karl Lashley 1890-1958
assessed behavioral effects of brain lesions on memory learning perception and motivation
Donald Hebb 1904-1985
introduced Hebbian synapse and cell assemblies He was a Canadian physiologist and was a student of Lashley. Believed neurons strengthened their connections through use
Hebbian synapse
Hebbian synapse: A synapse that is strengthened when it successfully drives the postsynaptic cell.
cell assembly
cell assembly: A large group of cells that tend to be active at the same time because they have been activated simultaneously or in close succession in the past
Rene Descartes 1596-1650
wrote DeHomone and proposed the concept of spinal reflexes and a neural pathway He thought they met with the pineal gland which was not true
Roger Sperry 1913-1955
Sperry got a Nobel prize in physiology 1981 for his work on separate forms of consciousness in the two hemispheres of the brain. This came about because of his work with split brain individuals
Hippocrates 400 BC
Greek physician believed the brain was the the source of thought action and emotion
Herophilus 350 BC
(Father of Anatomy) advanced knowledge by dissection of people and animals. He traced spinal nerves from muscles and skin into the spinal cord. and that each region connected to separate nerves
Galen (Father of Medicine)
treated head injuries of gladiators and noted behavioral changes and assessed them as due to head injury
Leonardi Da Vinci 1452-1519
Renaissance painter and scientist studied body workings and laid the foundations of anatomical drawings. He did cross sections and even fluid filled nerves and ventricles of the brain
Hermann Ebbinghaus 1885
german psychologist shows how to measure learning and memory
Edward Thorndike 1898
American Psychologist showed how to measure learning and memory in humans
Ivan P Pavlov
Russian Physiologist conditioned reflex
William James 1890
began modern approach to biological psychology saw consciousness and other aspects of human experience as properties of the nervous system
dualism: The notion, promoted by Descartes, that the mind is subject only to spiritual interactions while the body is subject only to material interactions

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