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Athens and Sparta Go to War-Athens Rebuilds


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What are the dates for Greece's Golden Ages?
480-430 B.C.
Why is this time called the Golden Age?
Great flowering of drama, sculpture, philosophy, and science
Who was the leader during that time?
How did he come to power?
Oratory: reasoned with everyone, elected as one of the 10 generals, reelected year after year
How did he strengthen democracy?
Paid for public jobs, now even the poorest could hold these jobs
How did he build a commercial empire?
Used Delian League to enrich Athens, navy safeguarded trade
How did he glorify Athens?
Used money to rebuild Athens...created the Parthenon
What is the Parthenon and why is it so extraordinary?
It is a temple in Athens. It is not huge, but it has excellent craftsmanship and design
Who was the sculptor who did much of the work on the Parthenon?
How did the sculptors of the classical age show human figures?
Graceful, strong, perfectly formed, serene, grace of body and motion
What is classical art?
Order, balance, proportion
What were the two purposes for theatrical productions?
To express civic pride and tribute to the gods
Who were the major writers of these plays during the Age of Pericles?
Aeschylus and Sophocles
What was perhaps the most famous of all Greek dramas?
How was a play performed?
Acted, chanted, chorus commented, and the masks had protruding lips like a megaphone
Where were the plays performed?
What happens to the tragic hero of the plays?
He overcomes a great feat and is brought down by his own strength, fatal flaw, pride is punished by gods
What is hubris?
Too much pride
What was the effect of a drama on the audience?
Saddened and uplifted
What is catharsis?
Emotional cleansing in a play
How was drama a form of public education?
Great issues important to the public discussed: power, justice, mortality, war and peace, duties owed to the gods, family, and city
If you were to take a walk through the Athens of that time, what sights, sounds, and smells might you encounter?
Smelly- from the animals, noisy- from the vendors selling their items at market, and crowded
What was the role and status of women?
stay home, cook, take care of children, weave cloth, veiled in public, could not own or inherit land, educated at home, lived in women's quarters, retreated when male guests were entertained
What was housing like in Athens?
Tiny, plain, thin, mud-bricked walls, few tables and chairs, paintd pottery
What was the famous Athenian craft and export item?
Red and black pottery
When did the tensions between Sparta and Athens explode?
431 B.C.
How did the Spartans attempt to defeat the Athenians?
Destroy food supply
How did the Athenians attack protect themselves and attack Sparta?
Long walls, supplied by sea, attacked by sea
In the oration by Pericles, how does he define democracy?
Government favors the many over the few, equal justice, and advancement open to everyone
How does he define a full life for a citizen?
Arts, politics, while having own livelihood, a man who does not participate in public life is useless
According to Pericles what is the role of Athens, and what evidence does he offer for that role?
Leadership, school of Greece, Athenians would die for it
Who wrote the history of the war between Athens and Sparta?
What is the war between Athens and Sparta called?
The Peleponnesian War
What two events brought down Athens?
Defeat by Sparta and plague
What did Athens lose after its defeat?
Fleet, empire, wealth, power, confidence
What shows a loss of confidence?
Series of weak and corrupt leaders
How did art and drama change?
Art began to show people's joys and emotions, comedies made fun of politics, people, and ideas of the time
What is a philosopher?
One who loves wisdom
What were the two basic arguments of philosophers?
Universe and orderly and subject to the same laws
Who was Socrates?
Greece's greatest philosopher, Athenian soldier, stonecutter, ugly, messy, agile minds
How did he teach?
Socratic method: questioning everything
Why was he considered dangerous?
Questioned accepted values, morals, religion, and corrupted the youth
How did Socrates defend himself?
Teachings were good for Athens because they forced people to think about their values and actions (suggested state give him pension)
What effect did Socrates' death have on Plato's thinking about government?
Average citizen of a democracy was unable to govern wisely...bitter
What was Plato's school and how long did it last?
Academy and it lasted 900 years
What according to Plato is the best government and why?
Three groups:
1: most fit group 1- for farmers and artisans
2: Minds and bodies fine enough to be warriors
3: People with greatest intellect/insight should be chosen philosopher/king
What areas of knowledge interested Aristotle?
Morals, mathematics, biology, botany, geology, medicine, politics, art, drama, language, geography, education, and law
What is a syllogism?
Three logically related statements
If A is true and B is true and A and B are related, then C is true
Aristotle helped to develop what kind of thinking?

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