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Western Civ - Unit 3


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Name the 4 components of the Spartan Govt
1. Two Kings
2. Five Ephors
3. Council of Elders aka Gerousia
4. Citizens Assembly aka Apella
Commanders-in-chiefs and chief officers of the state.

Kept command in the war and religious matters.

Became part of the Council of Elders.
Two Kings
Executive and legislative functions, originally resp for bringing the Assembly into session.

They come out of the Citizens Assembly (Apella)

Supervised the training of Spartan youth, presided over the Gerousia and the Apella.
Five Ephors
Had to be over 60 years old and served until they died.

This important body considered measures to put before the Assembly and assisted city magistrates.

Had jurisdiction over civil matters and some criminal cases.

Also h
Council of Elders aka Gerousia
The popular assembly, consisted of Spartan citizens over 30 years old.

Their job was to elect magistrates on a yearly basis and accepting or rejecting measures proposed by the Gerousia.

At first did not debate but just voted.
Citizens Assembly aka Apella
Name the 10 components of the Athenian Govt.
1. Archon or King
2. Polemarch
3. Areopagus
4. Ecclesia
5. Council of 400 or Boule
6. Heliae
7. Council of 500
8. Demarch
9. Deme
10. Board of Ten Generals
Who did the Spartans enslave?
Helots (Messenians)
They were run by the city states.
Most popular Helots were killed to prevent an insurrection.
Spartan social code
Citizens have no political rights
Voteless freemen
Merchants of Sparta
Athens social code
Merchants of Athenia State
Slaves were indvidually owned and held.
Infiltration of slave system to spot potential bad slaves.
Could fit into slaves very well.
Spartan footsoldiers.
Important part of Spartan success.
Spartans - more emphasis for footsoldiers vs. Athens emphasis of the sea.
Military formation
Greek - elbow to shield tight columns
Who formulated the Spartan constitution. Outlined the Spartan Govt620 BC?
Commander in chief of army?
4 people to bring democracy to Athens
1. Draco (made codificatin of laws)
2. Solon
3. Peistratus (Tyrant that supercedes Solon)
2 sons - Hippias (kills bro) Hipparchus.
4. Cleisthenes
Who is responsible for ostracisim?
Delphi & Oracle?
Oracle was a fortune teller that would travel to the city of Delphi. People would come to talk to the Oracle and make sacrifices in return for information from the Oracle.
Religious cult dedicated to Demeter - goddess of fertility
Most common mystic cult.
encourages life after death.

Dionysus - god of wine and fertility named after this cult.
Orphism & Orpheus
Not a secretive cult - more substantial.

Comes about from work of Orpheus

Idea: Thinking pure would counter impure body. Soul would rest in animals after death (reincarnation)
1. Alcaeus - Themes - lived in Lesbos
2. Sappho - Aristcratic lady started finishing school for girls - lived in Lesbos. (most serious poetry)
3. Pindar - Mainland poet - lives in Thebes.
1. Thales - water
2. Anaximander - friction
3. Anaximenes - air
4. Pythagoras - numbers
Most famous sculptor and architect?
columns of the ancient world
Sculptor - spear thrower
Famous sculptor - discobolus
2 great historians
Herodoutus - Father of Hx. Said to be the father of history.

Thucydides - Father of Scientific Hx. Chronicles of the PP war
Greek Drama
Greater Dionysia - march of city Dionysia.

Lenea - held at the end of January

Skene - props are stored around the stage and auditorium
Play writes?
Aeschylus - Known for trilogy - Orestia.

Sophocles - Wrote Odeipus Rex - theme of incest

Aristophanes - #1 write of comedy - old and new comedy. old - frogs, birds, New - sex strike

Euripedes - Wrote Medea - Medea kills husbands mistress and children.
People were not followers of Socrates.

Taught practicle skills and accepted money for services (Socrates did not)
Student of Socrates
Most things we learn about Socrates we learn from Plato.

Wrote the Republic
Student of Plato

Will create the scientific method - found more in the reality of man.
Astute and honest politician.

Tried to keep poverty out of Athens by having poor peopl working in public works projects.
High class mistress of Pericles
Archidamus & Archidamian?
Archidamus - king of Sparta

Archidamian - General for Sparta during the PP war first 10 years.
Spartan General
3 Spartan leaders during the PP War
Archidamus - king

Archidamian - general

Brasidas - general
Athenian leader during the PP War
Cleon "The Tanner" -
succeeds Pericles
Significance of the battle of Thrace during the PP War?
Brasidas & Cleon the tanner are killed.
Nicias & Alcibiades?
Athenian generals - rivalry.

Alcibiades initiates the Sicilian Expedition. Nicias is not in favor of - Greek people are in favor - Nicias must go regardless
leads reinforcements to Nicias after Alcibiadews defects to Sparta
Spartan leader - moves and defeates Athens after Alcibiades is gone from Greece (defected to Persia)Athens defeat is blamed on Alcibiades.
Battle of Argusinae?
Athenian victory of the PP war - big storm after victory, many washd over. however, many officers executed and forfeits Athens victory due to the elimination of leaders.
Battle of Aegospotami
Athenian defeat - likely because many leaders were killed by Lysander (spartan commander)
Corinthian war?
Challenges to Spartan leadership.
Sparta will will with the help from Persia.
1. Argos
2. Corinth
3. Thebes
4. Athens
War of 378 - 371?
Athens and Thebes will break bread and work together to overthrow Spartan rule.
By 371 - peace table - Agesilaus is Spartan leader.
371 - War is rekindled afer erupts from peace table after Corinthian war.

Thebes hurts Sparta by releasing slaves from Laconia.
Grandfather of Alexander the Great

Son is Phillip II (father of Alexander the great)
Accorded #1 position of orators. Tries to warn of impending invasions of Phillip II.
1st Phillipic?
Oration against Phillip II - Greeks better be watchful of Phillip II, he is acquiring Greek territory.
346 Treaty?
Phillip II tells the the Greeks that he will not attempt any further takeovers. He is lying.
Battle of Chaeronea?
Phillip II defeats Athens and Thebes.
He established Greek league - each person must commit.
Phillip II
Alexander the great

Leaders of what country?
Lead by Alexander the Great - one of his seasoned querillas
Battle of Granicus
Alexander the Great will take over along coast

Alexander will warn people that all traitors will be executed.
Battle of Issus?
Alexander the great gets control of Asia Minor.
Battle of Tyre?
Battle for Alexander the great - this battle takes 7 months and devastates Tyre.
Battle of Arbela?
One of the greatest battles of the ancient world. Alexander the Great will meet Darius III in a decisive battle that will fold the Persians.

Alexander continues to the east.
Battle at Hydaspes River
last battle - secondary river off the Indus river. Site of last battle in taking Persia. Alexander met Porus (Indian leader) and defeates.
Alexander ends as Susa.
Battle of Ipsus
Alexander dies at the Battle of Ipsus
Period after Alexander the Great
Hellenistic period
Empires established after Alexander the greats death at the battle of Ipsus
1. Ptolemy - Ptolemaic dynasty in Egypt

2. Seleucus - Seleucid empire (largest)

3. Antigonid - Greece and Macedonia
(started by Cassandra)
Alexandria, Antioch, Rhodes
1. Alexandria - primary city of scholarly study in Greece

2. Antiioch - Selucia empire - 2nd city in scholarly study

3. Rhodes - Island that has great school of sculpting - dedicated to Athens.
pergamium, Theocrites, Polybus
1. Pergamium - Major school in Pergamum

2. Theocrites - Outstanding poet - rustic poetry.

3. Polybus - 2nd great historian - still have 5 of 40 volums from him.

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