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American History Chp.2


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How and why did the Spanish begin to take African Slaves?/
Spaniards believed they were superior to Africans, and physical work was "beneath" them. Labor was for sugar plantations in the Caribbean would be supplied by African Slaves.
Describe the encomienda system?
Land granted to Spanish Nobles in the New World could be woked by Native Americans. (reduced to slavery)
What made Columbus interested in Asia?
He read The Travels of Marco Polo
What was Italy's position in renaissance Europe? and Why?
Italy was the center of "rebirth" of Europe; it was able to control the Mediterranean Sea because of geographical advantage ( had a trade monopoly with the East)
Tell about the ideas and advances of prince Henry of Portugal
Sponsored his countrymen on voyages of exploration; use of compasses, astrolabes, celestial navigation and improved ships (caravel) helped Portugal surpass her rivals in navigation.
What were the goals of Ferinand and Isabella?
To gain wealth and power to spread Christianity and discover, to move ahead of rivals like Portugal
describe the renaissance
period of scientific curiosity, a return to classical learning, praise of humanity.
How did the Portugese help finance their voyages?
They began to trade in African slaves to help pay voyage costs
Tell about Vasco de Gama.
Broke the Italian trade monopoly by selling from Portugal to India (around Africa's Cape of Good Hope)
How are the growth of trade, the rise of towns, and the beginnings of a middle class related?
Weakened the feudal system; serfs began moving to towns to take paying jobs. "Middle Class" grew up, gained wealth, education, and some policical power.
Describe feudalism in Middle Ages Europe.
system in which people vowed loyalty to a lord in exchange for land and proection
What happened to Native Americans between 1500 and 1900? Why?
Killed by decease and warfare numbers fell from about 40 million to 1 million
What was the Columbus Exchange?
Transfer of plants, animals, and deseases between continents
Describe the changes in the world caused Columbus?
Shattered the idea of oceans as barriers; "new world" would be largely Spanish speaking and Catholic
Why did the Spanish monarchs finance Columbus?
They had defeated the Moors and unified Spain. They now had the Money.
What threatened the peace of Middle Ages Europe?
Wars: Viking raids and Muslim Armies
What developments in government occured as powerful monarchs emerged in Europe?
power became centralized with strong kings & queens;nationalism became a factor in peoples lives
Why are the middle ages often called the age of faith?
Religion was so important to the daily lives of people; the church was powerful, wealthy, a source of knowledge.
Decsribe the Crusades, including their purpose
A series of "Holy Wars" authorized by the Pope beginning in 1070 lasting 200 yrs. An attempt to regain the Holy lands from Muslims

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