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psychology ch. 4


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"zone of proximal development"
said by Vygotsky. When people are learning they need to be challenged enough that they will learn but they need enough prior learning that they can attach the new material to.
adapting one's current understandings(schemas) to incorporate new information
Alzheimer's Disease (dementia)
irreversible brain disorder, gradual deterioration of memory, reasoning, language, and physical functioning
interpreting one's new experience in terms of one's existing schemas.
authoritarian parents
impose rules and expect obedience. bad! creates low self-esteem. too aggressive.
authoritative parents
demanding and responsive. better than authoritarian. set and enforce rules and explains why. encourages open discussions and allowing exceptions when making rules.
disorder that appears in childhood. when the kid doesn't communicate, socialize, or unerstand others' states of mind
Babinski's reflex
when you scratch the baby's foot, it scrunches up its feet
Children with the highest self-esteem, self-reliance, and social comeptence usually have warm, concerned, ______ parents.
refers to all the mental activies associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating.
Concrete Operational, Stage 3
7-11yrs. Learns to logically reason about concrete events. Understand conservation and reversal
Ojects stay the same even when their form changes. Example: when you squish ice cream down so it doesn't look as tall, they'll understand it's the same amount of ice cream
Critical Period
A key nurture concept. A specific period during development when a specific kind of stimulatoin (or lack of it) can have a profound effect on later development
cross-sectional study
a study in which people of different ages are compared with one another. suggests decline in graphs
crystallized intelligence
one's accumulated knowledge and verbal skills. tends to increase with age
developmental psychologists
people who study physical, mental, and socialchanges throughout the human life cycle
During the fetal stage, the fetus can feel mom's movement by the month #___ and almost everything is developed by month #__.. focus is on growth!
4, 7
During which of Erikson's stage does a child learn self-assertion?
Autonomy vs. Shame and doubt
the developing human organism about 2 weeks after fertilization through the second month
Erikson's Autonomy vs. Shame and doubt
1-2yrs. Child is allowed to make independent decisions or is made to feel ashamed/full of doubt about own decisions
Erikson's Generativity vs. Self-absorption/stagnation
middle adulthood. 40-65yrs. (Generativity=what you contribute to help other people's lives). Determining what to leave behind for future generations or failing to grasp a sense of meaning in life
Erikson's Identity vs. Role confusion
Adolescence. Grasps sense of identity or becomes confused about possible future roles as adult
Erikson's Industry vs. Inferiority
6-11yrs. Child feels competent working with others or inferior.
Erikson's Initiative vs. Guilt
3-6yrs. Child develops own purpose/direction or is made to feel guilty by overly controlling caregivers
Erikson's Integrity vs. Despair
Late adulthood. 65+ yrs. Feeling that life was worthwhile or feeling despaire about one's life and fearing death.
Erikson's Intimacy vs. Isolatoin
Young adulthood 20-40yrs. Forming deep/intimate relationships with others or becoming socially isolated.
Erikson's Trust vs. Mistrust
birth-1yr. treatment by caregivers creates trust/mistrust in a good world
fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)
physical and cognitive abnormalities in children caused by a pregnant woman's heavy drinking. include noiceable facial misproportions [now the leading cause of mental retardation]
the developing human organism from 9 weeks after conception to birth
fluid intelligence
one's ability to reason speedily and abstractly. tends to decrease during late adulthood.
Formal Operational, Stage 4
12+ yrs. Abe to think logically. Abstract thinking..kid reasons in more abstract, idealistic and logical ways and about hypothetical situations.
Gilligan stated that in justice vs. caring (the porcupine story), boys tended to go for ____ and the girls _____.
boys: justice(the porcupine needs to leave) and girls: suggested a solution
Gilligan's theory of moral development includes 3 general phases(stages):
Morality as individual survival, self-sacrifice, and equality
Harlow's studies show that:
there is a preference for "contact comfort"(prefer cloth over wire, cuddle over eating), fear reduction(baby monkeys run to moms when scared), & secure based(babies need a secure base, mom, to explore bravely)
How we know the behavior is due to maturation:
Universal(everyone does it), Sequential(goes in order), & relatively uninfluenced by experience
How we use and adjust our schemas:
Assimilate and Accommodate.
the process by which certain animals form attachments during a cirtical period very early in life. Ex: 12 hrs after birth, ducklings will attach and follow any object that moves.
Kohlberg's conventional stage:
Stage 3: (approval-disapproval) you do the right thing to be seen as a good person. Stage 4: (rule following-law&order) you do the right thing out of respect for the law
Kohlberg's post-conventional stage:
Stage 5: (social contract) needs of others come before your needs. Stage 6: (universal ethical principle) self-determined moral ideas based on justice, dignity, and equality
Kohlberg's preconventional stage:
Stage 1: (punishment-obedience) You do the right thing because you avoid punishment. Stage 2: (intstrumental-hedonistic) you do the right thing to gain rewards
Kohlberg's stages of moral development:
Preconventional, conventional, post-conventional
Kubler-Ross's "stages of acceptances":
Denial and isolation, anger, bargaining, depression, acceptance.
longitudinal study
a study in which the same people are restudied and retested over a long period. suggests more stability
A key concept in nature (nature/nurture). A biological proces that enables orderly changes in behavior..has very little to do with environment (ex: lay-crawl-toddle-walk-run)
first menstrual period
Moro's reflex
Babies grasp forward when they feel they are dropped/falling
newborn preferences:
babies like face-like images(stare longer) and smell of mom. they stare at an image with higher contrast (Bullseye than a solid disk) and prefer to look at object 8-12 inches away.. same distance between baby's and mom's eyes
permissive parents
submit to their children's desires, make few demands, and use little punishment
primary sex characteristics
body structures that make sexual reproduction possible. female: ovaries, male: testes. External genitalia.
Properational, Stage 2
2-6yrs. Child is not logical. Egocentric, incapable of seeing another point of view. symbolic thinking increases, allowing for language to be more sophisticated. still have trouble with mental manipulation of info. Ex: if the kid can't see you, then you c
rooting reflex
when you brush their cheek, the babies will open their mouths and look for a nipple
a concept or framework that organizes and interprets information
Secondary sex characteristics
nonreproductive sexual characteristics. female: breats and hips, male: voice quality and body hair
Sensorimeter, Stage 1
0-2yrs. Learns connections between sensations and motor actions. Object permanence. Ex: if you can't see it, it doesn't exist. Ex2: trying to get a shovel to fit in thru a small doorway and can't understand why it doesn't fit
stage during prenatal development when there is a further refining of organs
fetal period(8weeks-birth)
stage during prenatal development when there is rapid cell division; major organs are present
stages of prenatal development
Conception(fertilization), Zygote(0-2weeks), Embryo(2-8weeks), Fetal period(8weeks-birth)
harmful agents such as viruses and drugs that can reach the embryo or fetus and cause harm
The internal physical changes as you age:
brain becomes smaller and lighter(decrease in neurons and blood flow, and it pulls away from the skull) & circulation decreases(because blood vessels has hardened and shrinked)
theory of mind
people's ideas about their own and others' mental states - their feelings, perceptions, and thoughts and the behavior these might predict.
What are the three major issues that psychology researchers center on?
Nature/Nurture, continunity/stages, stability/change(Do our early personality traits persist through life, or do we become different persons as we age?)
When does stranger anxiety for a baby begin?
At 6 months old. Infants get apprehensive when confronted by a stranger.
Which areas in the brain are the last to develop?
The associatoin areas of the cortex - linked with thinking, memory, and language
which side is nature/nurture?
nature: genes, nurture: environment
the fertilized egg; it enters a 2 week period of rapid cell division and develops into an embryo
____ is the beginning of sexual maturity

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