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LEA lecture test 2


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Rabbits are not rodents - what are they?
What are 3 uses of rabbits?
Commercial (meat, fur), research, pets
When does molting occur in rabbits?
What tooth feature differentiates rabbits from rodents?
Top incisors include 2 front teeth and 2 peg teeth
What are night stools in rabbits?
Soft feces passed in the night which the rabbit eats directly from the anus.
If a owner sees the night/cecal stools what maybe wrong?
Rabbit may be sick
Why is it so important to support the back when handling a rabbit?
They can luxate the spine with their powerful kicking
How should you place a rabbit in a cage? Why?
Place hind in first to avoid injury.
What might a rabbit do if mad or defensive?
Thump back legs
Do rabbits eat a lot or a little?
They are designed to eat large volumes of food
What kinds of foods should a rabbit receive daily?
high fiber rabbit pellets, fresh greens, free choice grass hay, small amounts of fresh fruits
What kind of hay should you avoid feeding a rabbit? Why?
Alfalfa - too much calcium
Do rabbits pee a lot or a little?
They produce large amounts of urine
What is unique about the rabbits estrus cycle?
They are induced ovulators
What is a female rabbit called? Male? Baby?
Doe, buck, kit
In rabbits, parturition is also called what?
What is a unique sign of approaching parturition in rabbits?
Fur pulling (from dewlap) for nest during the last 3-4 days of pregnancy
What is a unique thing that could happen during rabbit parturition?
Split parturition - babies can be born up to 3 days apart
In rabbits, the doe has no _____ instinct which means that she will not replace wandering young.
In rabbits, how often does the doe nurse young?
2x/day for 5-10 minutes - this small amount often makes clients think that doe is neglecting the babies
Pseudopregnancy is also called what?
False pregnancy
Where are bleeding locations in a rabbit?
marginal ear vein, central ear artery ( auricular artery), jugular, cephalic, lateral saphenous, vena cava
What can rabbits do to the auricular artery that can make the draw difficult?
They can vasoconstrict it - may need to give a sm amt of Ace before the draw to promote vasodilation
What do you need to remember about holding off when drawing from the auricular artery in rabbits?
This is an artery so you need to hold off longer - 30-40 seconds
What feature of a rabbit could make a jugular blood draw difficult?
Large dewlap
Why might a lateral saphenous draw be difficult in a rabbit?
They do not like lying on their sides - may be done in a rabbit too sick to put up a fight
What sites are recommended for IM injections in rabbits?
lumbar recommended, possibly quads
What IM sites should be avoided in rabbits? Why?
semimembranosus, semitendonosus, and biceps femoris - sciatic nerve damage causes rabbits to chew off their toes and worse
In rabbits, foods should be withheld 2-4 hours before anesthesia because they do not have the ability to what?
Sick rabbits are a high _____ risk
What are some dz conditions of rabbits? Most commom?
back injuries, heatstroke, malocclusion, hair balls, enteritis (most common)
What are some internal parasites found in rabbits?
Coccidia, Pinworms
What are some external parasites found in rabbits?
Fleas, ear mites, cheylitiella, cuterebra warbles, rabbit syphilis
What rabbit external parasite could call for surgical removal?
Cuterebra warbles
In rabbits, most abscesses are caused by what?
Pasturella species
"Snuffles" an upper respiratory dz in rabbits, is caused by what?
Pasturella multicoda
In rabbits, how is snuffles xmitted?
fomites, direct contact, aerosol
What rabbit dx condition is characterized by purulent exudate present deep in the ear canal?
Otitis Media
What are some signs of an ear infection (Otitis Media) in rabbits?
asymptomatic, rhinitis, scratching at ears, ataxia, nystagmus (eye "click")
In rabbits, hypercalciuria is often caused by what?
alfalfa hay
What dx condition are rabbits, esp obese rabbits, prone to?
bladder stones
What animal has been used as a working animal since 4 BC in some countries?
What other animals are in the same family as ferrets?
weasels, mink, badgers, and skunk
Why is it important to check state and city regulations before getting a ferret as a pet?
They are illegal in some areas
What are some uses for ferrets?
hunters, pets, research (human influenza)
Are ferret claws retractable?
Why does descenting not work in ferrets?
The odor is caused by sebaceous secretions of the skin, not entirely by the anal glands
When do ferrets molt?
Spring & fall
In ferrets, their eyesight is only good at ____ distances.
Short, they are most visually aware of rapid movements
Ferrets depend heavily on what two senses?
hearing and smell
Ferrets sleep about ______% of the time
70-75% - like to sleep in heaps or in rags or towels
All ferrets are born what color? When to they get their true color?
All born light colored, get their true colors at 3 wks of age
Why are glass tanks not suitable housing for ferrets?
lack of ventilation
What environment temps can a ferret not tolerate?
Greater than 90 degrees or lower than 20 degrees
What should you keep in mind when trying to litterbox train a ferret?
They have a shorts GI transit time (3-4 hours), so it is important to have multiple boxes
What should be done to ferret proof a home?
block off holes, cover underside of furniture w/ wood to prevent burrowing, pick up objects such as rubber bands, twist ties, etc.
Why shouldn't you house ferrets next to rabbits or other rodents?
The ferret's odor can cause panic in the other animals
Why should you not bathe a ferret more than once a month?
Strips skin of oil and could cause puritits
Are ferrets carnivores, herbivores, or omnivores?
What kinds of food should you feed a ferrret?
Ferret chow or high qual kitten chow is best, but fresh meat and egg yolks could be fed
What kind of treats should you give a ferret?
fresh meat scraps, meat baby food, liver or fish cat treats
Why is a hairball remedy given to a ferret?
Used as a supplement for nutrition
Are ferrets easy to restrain? How should it be done?
Hard to restrain! Scruff by neck or armpits and lift feet off of table - they usually relax
What part of a PE do ferrets HATE?
Have temp taken - do that first
How often should ferrets have a vet exam?
Anually until age four and then 2x/yr (considered geriatric after four and increased occurrence of neoplasia and metabolic dz)
What are common vax for ferrets?
Rabies and distemper
Are ferrets induced or spontaneous ovulators? Continuously or seasonally polyestrus?
induced, seasonally
What are the names for female, male, and baby ferrets?
jill, hob, and kits
When do ferrets reach puberty?
4-8 months of age
What is the gestation length of ferrets?
41-42 days
What are some sites for blood draws in ferrets?
lateral saphenous, cephalic, jugular, anterior vena cava - ferrets usually need to be sedated for draws
What is removed when descenting a ferret?
Anal glands - doesn't truly descent them, however
In relation to anesthesia in ferrets, food can safely be witheld for __ hours prior to, but not for more than __ hours
Up to 4, no more than 6
What are some signs of canine distemper in ferrets?
URI, lesions around mouth & chin, seizures, anorexia, depression, death
How is canine distemper xmitted to/by ferrets?
Aerosol, direct contact (nasal/eye fluids, urine, feces, skin, fomites)
What is the tx and prognosis of canine distemper in ferrets?
No tx, supportive care is euth not possible - prognosis is guarded and is typically fatal
What ferret dz is zoonotic?
Human influenza
What are some signs of human influenza in ferrets?
sneezing, watery eyes/conjunctivitis, nasal discharge, lethargy, enteritis, anorexia
How is human influenza xmitted to/by ferrets?
aerosol, owner to ferret, ferret to ferret, ferret to owner
What is the prognosis and tx for human influenza in ferrets?
Prognosis is good, tx - eat and fluids, antihistamines, antiviral drugs, ABs to tx secondary bacterial infections
What are some internal parasites that ferrets could have?
coccidia, giardia, cryptosporidium
What species of ear mites do ferrets get?
Otodectes cyanotis - can affect dogs and cats
What is common name of Sarcoptes scabei?
Sarcoptic mange
What are some signs of sarcoptic mange in ferrets?
alopecia, puritis, feet affected in localized form - inflammation, swollen, crusty
What fungal dz can ferrets get?
Ringworm - ZOONOTIC
Can ferrets get heartworm?
Yes - and due to their small size, one adult heartworm can be fatal
What are some signs of heartworm in ferrets?
lethargy, coughing, dyspnea, and ascities
In general, how to benign v. malignant tumors present?
Benign - in a ball/contained, malignant - fingers out to other parts
What factors may predispose a ferret to cancer?
genetics, early neutering, natural photoperiod not obtained, diet, infectious agents
What kinds of cancers can affect ferrets?
Lymphomas, mast cell tumors
What endocrine/hormone disorders can affect ferrets?
Hyperestrogenism, hyperadrenocortism, insulinoma
What causes hyperestrogenism in ferrets?
continual heat - female not spayed or bred
What causes hyperadrenocortism in ferrets? What dz is this in humans?
Cushings in humans. Caused by glucocorticoids/cortisol secreted by an adrenal gland tumor.
What causes insulinoma in ferrets? What does animal look like when they have this?
Caused by pancreatic tumors, they look drunk
What rodent are we studying that originated in the Andes Mountains of South America?
What kinds of reasearch studies are chinchillas used for?
Auditory, ENT - noise exposure and ototoxicity, hearing sensitivity similar to humans
What are chinchillas used for?
Pets, furs, research
What is the lifespan of a chinchilla?
Avg is 10 years - can live up to 20
All chinchilla teeth are open rooted - what is unique about the incisors?
Can grow 2-3 inches a year
What are some behavior charateristics of chinchillas?
Quiet, shy, agile, pets active during the day but naturally more nocturnal, odorless, corprophagic
What is the primary defense mechanism of a chinchilla?
Why should you never try and grab a racing chinchilla?
Patches of hair and skin can slip off - "fur-slip"
What is a unique characteristic of chinchilla pellets as compared to other rodent pellets?
Longer which makes it easier for them to hold in their forepaws
Why are small tree branches and pumice stones given to chinchillas?
As gnawing objects to help wear down teeth
What kind of tree branches are toxic to chinchillas?
Cedar, plum, redwood, and cherry
What features should a chinchilla cage have?
mulit-level, hide box, tubes, wire-mesh construction, dry (less than 50% humidity), cool (50-68 degrees)
What kind of bath should be provided to a chinchilla daily?
dust bath - commercially available, removes dirt & oil from coat
When do chinchillas reach puberty?
8 months of age
What type of estrus cycle do chinchillas have?
seasonally polyestrus, spontaneous ovulators
Which is larger, male or female chinchilla?
Do male chinchillas have a scrotum?
No, testicles are located in the inguinal canal area
When is the breeding season in chinchillas?
What is the gestation length of chinchillas?
111 days
Are chinchilla newborns precocious or atricial?
Blood draws on chinchillas are difficult - name some sites to try
nail clip, jugular, cephalic, saphenous, vena cava, femoral, cardiac(terminal)
Dz conditions of chinchillas?
Conjunctivitis, bite wounds, internal parasites, constipation, diarrhea, fur-ring, heatstroke
What are two common causes of conjunctivitis in chinchillas?
excessive dust bathing and poor husbandry/contaminated water
What is a common reason for chinchillas to visit the vet?
What are some causes of constipation in chinchillas? Tx?
High protein diet w/o adequate roughage, obesity, intestinal obstruction - tx, increase fiber in diet
What are characteristics of sm bowel v. lg bowel diarrhea?
Sm - lg amounts, less freq, bad odor. Lg - sm amounts, more frequent, may contain sm amts of mucous or frank blood.
What are some causes of diarrhea in chinchillas?
improper feeding, stress, bacterial or parasitic infestation
What is a fur-ring in chinchillas?
A ring of hair around the penis & prepuce that eventually stops the penis from retracting into the prepuce
Temp over 80 degrees can cause what in chinchillas?

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